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Granitgard used as a partial and perimeter barrier in the protection of buildings against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10114
The graded granite subterranean termite physical barrier, commercially marketed as Granitgard, has a Certificate of National Accreditation issued by the Australian Building Codes Board, and is included in Australian Standards. After several years in developing the specifications and installation techniques for Granitgard, it may be used to protect almost all footing designs. Granitgard can be simply placed around slab penetrations and buildings perimeters to provide a durable, long-life subterranean termite barrier. This paper discusses the development of partial and perimeter applications of Granitgard around buildings, and the advantages of using a termite barrier that removes the need for costly and dangerous chemical retreatments.
D M Ewart, J R J French

Termite and decay protection - A superficial barrier field test
1983 - IRG/WP 3257
Samples of Pinus radiata were given a superficial barrier treatment and installed in the ground at two sites for five years to observe termite and fungal attack. The three best treatments of the series were Denso petroleum tape, Koppers hot dip tar enamel, and Arquad 2C/75 alkyl ammonium compound. As new fungicides and insecticides become available they are being added to the test using the same system of treatment and exposure.
R S Johnstone, W D Gardner

Experimental real building evaluation of termite attack - Effect of the space between the mat foundation and the thermal insulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10374
For evaluating the termite resistance of the real house foundation, specially in the case of thermal insulation systems for foundation walls, thermal insulation which can be attacked by termite, must be evaluate. Because of the difficulty of the water penetration of thermal insulation, the water barrier systems can be protected against termite attacks, in our opinions. The observation on the process of the penetration by termites and ones of a traditional barrier system against termites were evaluate by the real building scale test method.
K Suzuki, K Hagio, Y Tanaka

Inorganic wood preservative levels in soil near a noise barrier treated with different preservatives after 8 years in service
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50234
In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were installed near Stockholm Sweden. The test sections include untreated Scots pine, spruce and larch and Scots pine, treated with different wood preservatives. After 8 years in service, the untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with the soil were significantly decayed, with an estimated service life of about 5-10 years, while the untreated wood above ground is stained but not visibly decayed. Some degradation was detected in wood in soil contact for some of the preserved pine sections treated to AB levels (i.e. use class 3, above ground). Soil samples were collected at three horizontal distances from the barriers (0, 7 and 14 cm) with the 7 cm sample representing the drip line under a protective wedge designed to keep water out of the joints. Samples were collected at two depths representing groundline and the depth of the barrier in the soil (7.5 – 13 cm) and directly under the barrier. Soil samples collected after 8 years showed highest contaminant levels close to the barrier and under the wedge dripline. Arsenic levels in some locations close to CCA treated panels exceeded Swedish and Canadian soil guidelines for agricultural use and copper levels were above residential/park guidelines for some locations near ACQ and Tanalith MCB treated panels.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer, O Söderström

Comparative evaluation of the barrier effect against Hylotrupes bajulus L. of different types of wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 1307
This paper settles the difference of contact action against females of Hylotrupes bajulus the likelihood of egg-laying, the ovicide effect and the hazards of development of newly hatched larvae between some preservatives belonging to three differents types: mineral waterborne products, organic products and emulsions. The results show that against females, the action is fast with organic products, slower with emulsions and non existent with mineral products. They point out the relation between the longivity of females and the eventuality of egg-laying. With ageing, this latter become possible for almost every preservative. In the most of cases, the larvae hatch from eggs and can bore into wood until they accumulate the lethal dosis and that occurs more or less fastly. A few differences are observed for preservatives of the same category.
M-M Serment

Development of a Granitgard® particulate termite barrier for use in tropical Australia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10190
Granitgard® is superficially simple technology; graded crushed aggregate, sieved to a size range impenetrable to subterranean termites. However, behind this apparent simplicity lies a large research effort. In this paper we describe the laboratory development of a grading of Granitgard suitable for use against the wide range of termites which attack timber in northern Australia, above the Tropic of Capricorn.
D M Ewart, E R Rawlinson, A D Tolsma, G C Irvin, P R Wiggins

Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact threshold was demonstrated.
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre

Techniques for field assessment of particulate termite barriers
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10376
Field testing of particulate termite barriers poses problems different from those encountered when testing preservatives or soil termiticides. To ensure an adequate level of challenge, and minimise the risk of a Type II error, the experimental design must promote termite activity and provide a significant, readily detectable, food source which can only be reached by penetrating the test barrier. In this paper we describe the development of techniques for tests with the wholly subterranean Mastotermes darwiniensis and epigeous mound builder Coptotermes acinaciformis and the application of these techniques to explore the particle/building material interface.
D M Ewart, E R Rawlinson

Termite barriers for new construction
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10341
Subterranean termite protection in Australia has traditionally relied upon the creation of a zone of poisoned soil under and around the structure to prevent termite attack from the ground. The transition away from persistent soil poisons which began with the withdrawal of cyclodienes in 1995 provided market opportunities for innovative barrier systems. The new barrier systems currently being used in Australia can be split into two groups: (i) non toxic physical barriers which exclude termites through the use of impenetrable materials and (ii), toxic chemical barriers which do not use the traditional hand-spray to soil application method.
D M Ewart

Laboratory and field evaluation of Plasmite Reticulation System using bifenthrin as a chemical barrier within wall cavities against subterranean termites.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20307
Laboratory and field bioassays undertaken to demonstrate Plasmite Reticulation system effectively delivers the termiticide (bifenthrin) within a simulated wall cavity at the required concentration. The chemical assay indicated that the amount of bifenthrin sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m along the simulated reticulation system tested (30m) exceeded the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation of 0.0044%m/m. Results of the laboratory bioassay, using Coptotermes acinaciformis, indicated that the concentrations of bifenthrin present in the soil core samples at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m were extremely toxic and prevented termite penetration of bifenthrin treated soil in laboratory bioassays immediately after field soil treatment. No penetration of any soil core samples was observed in the field test against Coptotermes lacteus.
J R J French, B M Ahmed, J Thorpe, A Anderson

Feasibility of termite control using crushed cement-stabilized sludge (Polynite) as a physical barrier and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10381
In Japan, the damages by the subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) are more common. Recently, the more attention is paid to the methods of the termite controls of less- or non-chemical. As one of the non- chemical treatment, physical barrier using particles as basalts 1) , granites, and gravels 2) were investigated in terms of its safety, cost effectiveness and duration of performance, and there were also examples that the physical barriers using some particles have been put to practical use in a few countries except in Japan. Ebeling and Pence showed that the relationship between particle size and termite body size is an important factor in controlling tunneling activity of subterranean termites, and the crushed volcanic cinders of 0.85-2.36 mm in diameter prevented R. hesperus from penetrating 3) . Tamashiro and co- workers indicated that the particles of particular sizes (1.70-2.40 mm in diameter) prevented C. formosanus from penetrating 4) . Su and co- workers investigated the penetration of the sand barrier consisting of crushed quartz rocks and fossilized coral by C. formosanus in laboratory- and field-testing 5, 6) . These results show that it is important to investigate the relationships between the size of termites and particles to evaluate the effects of the physical barrier using particles. On the other hand, in Japan surplus soils and sludge of sixty million tons per annum are discharged from construction sites. The recycle techniques using the surplus soils and sludge and the development of the market for these recycled products are the theme of importance. The crushed cement- stabilized sludge (Polynite) as one of the recycled products of surplus soils and sludge is one of the newly developed and recycled material. It is technically suitable for mass production, has grate cost effectiveness, and is easy to uniform the particle size. In this study, the feasibility of a physical barrier using Polynite uniformed the particle size for termite was examined in a laboratory testing. AE monitoring 7-13) as a method forthe detection of the penetration of termites into the Polynite barrier at an early stage was also investigated, for the application of Polynite barrier in the house.
Y Yanase, M Shibata, Y Fujii, S Okumura, K Iwamoto, T Nogiwa, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura

Utilization of plasma treatments in the field of wood protection
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40912
Plasma treatments have been used for modification of surfaces of wood and wood-based materials for some decades and solutions were developed to apply it for wood protection. This contribution aims to present the background, introduce the available plasma technology, and to give an overview on the typical applications and benefits.
S Dahle, H Militz

Review of remediation methods of sites contaminated by wood preservatives - testing of filter material for use in permeable barrier technology
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50141
Several treatment methods are currently available for treatment of contaminated sites. Soil and water can be treated by immobilisation, separation or destruction of contaminants. It has been common to use intensive treatment methods starting with soil excavation to reach strict purification goals. However, technical and financial reasons make it difficult to reach the desired treatment criteria. As a result, alternative treatment methods are now being allowed. Less intensive in situ methods are being developed, such as natural attenuation, phytoremediation and permeable barriers. A permeable barrier is a passive treatment method for contaminated groundwater. A study was conducted to test various barrier materials for filtering creosote contaminated groundwater. Peat, compost, bark, sewage sludge and sewage sludge pellets were tested out for sorption of phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol. Peat and compost showed best sorption efficiency. Peat and compost were mixed with sand in various fractions to see if sand can be used to improve hydraulic properties of the filter material.
G Rasmussen, H Iversen, S Andersen

Termite physical barriers: Update on retrofitting Granitgard around 'mock-up' buildings after three years
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10118
This field experiment was installed three years ago (March 1992) to evaluate the effectiveness of Granitgard, the commercial name of a grade of crushed granite aggregate or "screenings", as a physical termite barrier when retrofitted around 'mock-up' buildings. The field site is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of north-west Victoria (360 km from Melbourne), and there are at least eight common indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. This paper describes the results of the field evaluation after three years in test using Granitgard as a retrofitted termite physical barrier. We discuss these findings and their implications in the protection of timber structures in areas in which there are naturally foraging populations of subterranean termites.
B M Ahmed, J R J French

Longterm monitoring of termite activity on multiple feeding sites: a laboratory method intended for the determination of attractant/repellent properties of wood preservatives and baits
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20225
A method is introduced allowing the continuous monitoring of the activity of a small laboratory termite- colony at 8 different feeding sites simultaneously. The test assembly consists of a small central polycarbonate-tube containing a colonie of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) beeing connected with 8 external feeding sites by small glass-capillaries. The termites passing through the glass capillaries to and from the feeding sites are interrupting an infrared light-barrier. Each signal from the light-barriers is conditioned and fed to a PC-based signal-recognition-, monitoring- and storage-system. First results show that a colony of 500 individuals of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) will need approx. 2 to 3 weeks for establishing a new, full functional hierarchy. A well established Reticulitermes- colony will show 80 to 100 passings per minute to and from the eight feeding sites. The activity of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) shows no circadian activity rhythmic.
M Pallaske, E Graf, H Takiuchi

Termite physical barriers: Is retrofitting with Granitgard an option?
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40011
Granite particles within the range of 2.4 to 1.7 mm diameter were recently adopted by the Standards Association of Australia as an alternative treatment to soil chemical barriers in protecting new buildings against subterranean termites. The granite substrate is sold under the commercial name, "Granitgard". However, there are many existing buildings that have no chemical or physical subterranean termite barriers, and are situated in termite hazard regions. So, the question arises, "can termite physical barriers alone prevent the entry of subterranean termites into such unprotected buildings?" This paper describes a field experiment designed and installed last year to evaluate the effectiveness of Granitgard as a termite physical barrier when retrofitted around 'simulated buildings'. The field station is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of northern Victoria (360 km north of Melbourne), and there are several indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. The results of this experiment after 12 months test suggest that retrofitting may be a viable option. Suggestions are offered in the use of retrofitting physical barriers in future termite control strategies, with and without soil chemical barriers or bait toxicants.
J R J French, B M Ahmed

A non-pressure method of protection based on hurdle theory to control the spectrum of internal environmental factors which affect the decay of poles in soil contact
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20005
A field trial was conducted to establish whether superficial barrier linings on poles in soil contact could function as environmental hurdles against the growth of biological agents and thus provide preventative methodology to preclude premature failure of vineyard poles under flood-irrigation. Assessment after 52 weeks exposure to the prevailing conditions and sub-tropical environment showed that open-ended cylindrical linings of biologically inert heat-shrink polyethylene applied to the vertical soil-contact surfaces of Eucalyptus grandis poles unequivocally prevented termite-induced failure of untreated poles, basidiomycete decay of creosote-treated poles and fungal colonisation of CCA-treated poles. The success of the liners in prevention of incipient decay of these poles was explainable on the basis of hurdle theory and was therefore attributed to the ability of the former to control essential growth factors and create internal conditions inimical to the proliferation of decay agents in the poles. Consequently, sub-optimal conditions of Aw, Eh, and nitrogen content were considered to have arisen to function as environmental hurdles which decay agents could not overcome at wood-soil interfaces.
A A W Baecker

Termite physical barriers: Update on retrofitting Granitgard around 'mock up' buildings after four years
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10140
This field experiment was installed four years ago (March 1992) to evaluate the effectiveness of graded crushed granite stone, commercially marketed under the name, Granitgard, as a physical termite barrier when retrofitted around 'mock-up' buildings. The field site is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of north-west Victoria (360 km from Melbourne), and there are eight common indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. This paper describes the results of the field evaluation after four years in test using Granitgard as a retrofitted termite physical barrier. No termites penetrated the Granitgard barriers, with and without chlorpyrifos treatments. We discuss these findings and their implications in the protection of timber structures in areas in which there are naturally foraging populations of subterranean termites.
B M Ahmed, J R J French

Protection of buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact from attack by subterranean termites with a physical barrier - a fine mesh of high grade stainless stee
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10014
A new type of physical barrier for the prevention of attack by subterranean termites on buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact - a fine mesh of highalloy (originally 304, now 316) stainless steel - has recently been developed and patented worldwide by industry in Australia. The termite resistance of the material was assessed by CSIRO in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory over a 12 week period 25 g groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis from three colonies, kept on a limited supply of food, were unable to breach a barrier of the steel mesh that separated them from a supply of highly susceptible wood. Timber enclosed with mesh was buried below ground at one site in tropical, and one site in southern inland Australia. A variety of species of termite, including Mastolermes darwiniensis, Coptotermes acinaciformis, and several species of Schedorhinotermes and Heterotermes were unable to reach and damage the wood despite making intensive contact with the mesh surface (two years data). The very high resistance of the 304 or 316 stainless steel to corrosion ensures that the mesh barrier will remain effective far beyond the expected life-time of a building. The size of the mesh openings can be varied to exclude the smallest representatives of the termite fauna at a given site. Examples of the range of applications for the stainless steel mesh in protecting structures and materials from termite attack are given.
M Lenz, S Runko

Trust in the durability of preserved wood during and after the reclamation of the Zuiderzee
1987 - IRG/WP 4134
A firm belief in the durability of preserved wood must have existed during the reclamation of the Zuiderzee, because thousands of m³ have been utilized. The wood is exposed to attacks of marine borers and other organisms in the marine environment. Was this trust right or wrong? A recent examination was made of creosote impregnated pine posts after 65 years service in a dam, near the Barrier Dam across the mouth of the Zuiderzee. The investigations have provided valuable information on the longterm performance of this material.
H Visscher

A novel chemical barrier system, KORDON® TMB, for the protection of buildings against subterranean termites using a synthetic matrix as carrier for the chemical
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10264
Kordon TMB is a new chemical barrier system for installation beneath concrete slab-on-ground constructions using a matrix other than soil as carrier for the termiticide. The product consists of a synthetic foraminous web (blanket) carrying the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin. The blanket is laminated on the upper side to a standard 0.2mm thick moisture vapour membrane of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and on the other side to a sheet of black 0.05mm UV-stabilised LDPE. Installation of the barrier follows existing building practice of setting down and sealing the vapour barrier, as required, during site preparation for building. Results of the evaluation of component materials and key features of the Kordon TMB system, which has been ongoing for the past eight years, are briefly discussed in this paper. Experiments simulated the use of treated webbing with or without LDPE under concrete slabs at sites near Griffith (New South Wales) in a semi-arid part of eastern Australia and near Darwin (Northern Territory) in the wet/dry tropics of northern Australia. In these trials timber has been protected from subterranean termite attack for more than seven to eight years at rates of 0.25 -2.50 g/m2 deltamethrin. In another series of studies, samples of wood protected by the webbing with LDPE were exposed to termites using a below-ground exposure method. To date, these trials have demonstrated successful protection of timber from termite attack for periods of six months to two years for rates from 0.01 - 1.00g/m2 deltamethrin. Laboratory studies have been conducted to simulate the Kordon TMB seals around service penetrations through the concrete slab. The first trial was conducted at incubation temperatures optimal to termite requirements, while a second series investigated the effectiveness of seals at lower temperatures more closely resembling conditions under a concrete slab. Based primarily on this work, Kordon TMB has been developed in Australia for approval by regulators.
M Lenz, P Morrow, S Runko

Termite physical barriers: Current status of retrofitting Granitgard around 'mock-up' buildings
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10057
Two years ago a field experiment was designed and installed to evaluate the effectiveness of Granitgard, the commercial name of a grade of crushed granite rock, as a termite physical barrier when retrofitted around 'mock-up' buildings. The field station is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of northern Victoria (360 km north of Melbourne), and there are several indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. After 20 months, no foraging by Coptotermes species has occurred in the 'mock-up' buildings. It seems that these termite species (the most economically important termite species in Australia) have not breached the trenches filled with Granitgard alone, and with a mix of Granitgard and chlorpyrifos. While it may be too early to declare that retrofitted Granitgard around existing buildings prevents subterranean termites gaining access to the building, there is no doubt that Granitgard does affect subterranean termite foraging behaviour. However, this effect is accomplished without detrimental environmentally side-effects. Granitgard is approved as an alternative to soil chemical barriers when installed under newly constructed buildings in the latest Australian Standard (AS 3660 -1993). The current results of the retrofitting experiment suggests that there may well be a practical role for such a physical barrier in the protection of existing buildings as well. This paper describes the results of the field evaluation of Granitgard when used as a retrofitted barrier around 'mock-up' buildings after two years in a field test. We discuse the implications of these findings and where they fit into future integrated pest management strategies for termite control.
J R J French, B M Ahmed

Quantification of creosote migration down wooden poles and the prevention of its depletion during flood irrigation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50032
Polyethylene field liners heat-shrunk onto soil-contact surfaces prevented decay of creosote-treated Eucalyptus grandis vineyard poles under flood-irrigation. The present work quantified losses of creosote from these poles after six and 24 months' service. After six months' service the mean creosote retention of unlined poles above the ground line was 12.62% (m/m dry wood), with sample retentions decreasing progressively to 4-6% at the ground line and 2-3% throughout their sub-soil profiles. These values remained similar after 24 months' service. The mean creosote retention above the ground line of lined poles after six months' service was 13.06%, however sample retentions did not decrease towards the ground line, and these remained between 13-17% throughout the sub-soil profile. After 24 months' service the mean creosote retention above the ground line of the lined poles had fallen somewhat, but sample retentions remained over 12% at, and below, the ground line. The results showed that, while slight creosote evaporation from wood above ground may have ocurred, the major phenomena affecting creosote retentions in unlined poles in soil were gravitational migration and leaching to soil, and it seemed that these factors were coupled. Primarily, the results confirmed that creosote was lost from poles by leaching to soil, and that such loss was prevented by the application of the field liners.
M Behr, A A W Baecker

Termite physical barriers: update on retrofitting Granitgard™ around 'mock-up' buildings after five years
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10226
This field experiment was installed five years ago (March 1992) to evaluate the effectiveness of graded crushed granite stone, commercially marketed under the name Granitgard™, as a physical barrier when retrofitted around 'mock-up' buildings. The field site is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of north-west Victoria (360 km from Melbourne), and there are eight common indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. This paper describes the results of the field evaluation after five years in test using Granitgard™ as a retrofitted termite physical barrier. No termites penetrated the Granitgard™ barriers, with or without chlorpyrifos treatments. We discuss these findings and their implications in the protection of timber structures in areas in which there are naturally foraging populations of subterranean termites.
J R J French, B M Ahmed

Efficacies of physical barriers for preventing blue-stain of Japanese red pine logs
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20359
This paper deals with field trials on physical barriers to prevent blue stain on Japanese red pine logs using a fly screen, bark and leaves of Japanese cedar as covering materials. These barriers arrested blue stain and bark beetle attacks to low levels than control for 1 month except covering with a small amount of bark. Covering with the fly screen and a large amount of bark permissibly suppressed blue stain for more than 1 month. The fly screen will be enough for practical use to prevent blue stain of pine logs.
H Taniuchi, T Koiwa, H Masuya, S Doi

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