Your search resulted in 1354 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground resistance of preservative-treated and untreated wood to termites and fungal decay – Summary of observations after five years
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20261
Results are presented from a five-year study conducted in five locations in Australia, Thailand and the USA. Three methods of exposure were assessed (below-ground, graveyard and ground contact) for evaluating the in-ground termite and decay resistance of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood stakes that had been vacuum pressure impregnated with CCA (Type C) and ACQ (Type D) each at two nominal retentions (...
M Lenz, J W Creffield, T A Evans, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat, A F Preston
International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of materials - highlights after two years
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20157
First-year results of a comparative study, evaluating the in-ground termite resistance of a range of materials, including CCA and ACQ-treated timbers, using the below-ground exposure, ground contact and graveyard methods against diverse termite faunas were provided in IRG/WP/98-20132. Further annual inspections have confirmed early trends and identified notable differences between sites and method...
M Lenz, J W Creffield, A F Preston, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat
Comparison of three methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of treated timber, durable timber and plastics at sites in Australia, USA and Thailand - First results
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20132
The in-ground resistance of materials to attack by subterranean termites is most commonly assessed with one form or another of the conventional graveyard method, despite the significant shortcomings of this method. In Australia, an alternative method, in which all samples of test materials are placed below-ground, has been in use for more than 10 years. The method provides reliable exposure of sam...
M Lenz, A F Preston, J W Creffield, K J Archer, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat
A test method to simulate above-ground exposure
1978 - IRG/WP 2112
The simulated above-ground exposure technique described is worthy of consideration as a simple procedure to determine the relative decay resistance of preservative-treated wood exposed to a moderate decay hazard. The method may readily be modified to allow testing of other materials such as plywood by simply enlarging the slots cut in the modified feeder strips. The method by no means completely s...
J A Butcher
Performance of Wood Protection Systems at Multiple Field Test Sites Using the Ground Proximity Test Method
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20499
A series of preservative systems were used to treat southern pine ground proximity test samples which were then exposed at a range of test sites located throughout the world. The sites were chosen on the basis of having vastly different Scheffer Climate decay indices. After almost 14 years exposure, distinct differences are apparent in how different preservative systems perform at the different ...
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin
Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destr...
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory
Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term te...
The isolation of actinomycetes from wood in ground contact and the sea
1980 - IRG/WP 1110
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton
Fungus cellar testing as an evaluation method for performance of treated timber in ground contact
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20227
A fungus cellar method for the accelerated evaluation of performance of treated wood in ground contact is described. The test soil comprised of sandy loam, vermiculite and Japanese horticulture soil "Kanumatsuchi" in a ratio of 6:2:2 by volume. The soil was inoculated with the dominant test fungus isolated with selective medium from decayed wood samples. Pairs of treated and untreated wood specime...
A below-ground exposure method for determining the resistance of woody and non-woody materials to attack by subterranean termites
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10012
With existing field test procedures, in which specimens are installed vertically to some of their length into the ground and spaced out from each other ("grave-yard" tests), variations in the rate of contact by termites between replicates can be common. Mechanical damage to specimens during inspection and re-installation may also be difficult to avoid. A new field test method, evaluated in Austral...
M Lenz, J W Creffield
The ground proximity decay test method
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20205
A decay field test method, which has been recently proposed for the standardization by the AWPA, is described for evaluating the relative performance of wood samples in a severe above ground situation exposed to the weather. Data is presented on the relative performance of untreated control samples and standard preservative systems exposed at the same site at different time periods, or at differen...
A F Preston, P J Walcheski, K J Archer, A R Zahora, L Jin
Field testing of soil insecticides as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1294
This paper reviews field methods used to evaluate soil insecticides as termiticides by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gulfport, Mississippi. Field tests are conducted on a minimum of five "nationwide sites" in the United States to determine the efficacy of chemicals in various soil types and against different termite species. Test results of selected insecticides are presented...
R H Beal
Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is...
W E Conradie, A Pizzi
Moisture condition in treated wood exposed outdoors. A progress report after 5 years
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3720
Wood treated with water-borne preservatives, mainly CCA (copper, chromium and arsenic) and CCB (copper, chromium and boron) is often said to absorb more water than untreated wood. In laboratory tests this statement has not been confirmed (Johansson 1977). In 1986 a project was started to compare water absorption during outdoor exposure between wood stakes of pine, Pinus sylvestris L, and spruce, P...
Attempt for developing a new method for above ground field testing of wood durability
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20199
Field testing remains the most appropriate way for evaluation of wood preservatives or natural durability of wood species. Above ground tests are designed to answer specific questions concerning the outdoor utilisation of wood. Such methods supply additional information and confirm or reject preliminary laboratory results. The European standard (ENV 12037, "lap-joint") for assessment of the durabi...
N Terziev, M-L Edlund
The full guideline for the “double layer test method” - A field test method for determining the durability of wood out of ground
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20290
This guideline describes a test method for wood to be exposed to the weather out of ground contact. The main objective of the method is to evaluate the durability of wood in above ground exposure as shifted overlaid stakes, which form the so called double layer. The method is applicable to the testing of untreated, treated and modified wood. Initially it was developed and found to be most useful ...
A O Rapp, U Augusta
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated hardwoods in ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2172
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated timber in ground contact is described. It uses partially sealed blocks of timber which are treated, leached and sawn into small stakelets for soil exposure in a fungal cellar. Performance is monitored by the loss of static bending strength with time, and a simple apparatus for measuring the deflection of a stakelet under a l...
E F Baines
A field method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to attack by subterranean termite
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20035
A method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to subterranean termites in the field is described. Termites are aggregated in 20-litre steel drums, each containing a highly susceptible timber substrate. At the centre of each drum, specimens of the test material under evaluation are sandwiched, using circular sections of wire mesh, between two layers of the substrate...
J W Creffield
Treatment application method and CCA efficacy in Corsican pine - Assessment by serial exposure and soil burial tests
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40006
A previous report on this research (Newman and Murphy, 1992) identified possible variation in the efficacy of a CCA preservative applied to Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) dependant upon the treatment application method (Bethel, Lowry or Steam/Bethel). This paper presents further data from biological testing of CCA treated Corsican pine using serial exposure and unsterile soil techniques...
P R Newman, R J Murphy
The accelerated L-joint test method for determination of the out of ground natural durability
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20146
The accelerated L-joint test incorporates a moistening device and uses a close end water trap in an open joint connection with a laminated tenon member consisting of the perishable reference wood species scots pine sapwood and beech. After one year of exposure it is possible to show a distinct identification of natural durability classes 4 and 5 against the more durable wood species. Both weight ...
J Van Acker, C Brauwers, M Stevens
Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field ...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey
Five years field test results for CCA and ACQ preservatives fixed in different climates
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30208
During assessment of the ground contact stakes in the Norwegian test field, we have found that very often the first visual rot attack is in the zone of the stakes were the stakes have been in contact with each other during the fixation. These parts are usually light green, caused by the lack of light during fixation, compared to the rest of the stake surface, which has a darker colour. To investig...
F G Evans
A field study on the suitability of the European lap-joint test
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20239
Within the framework of the European SM&T Research Project "Co-normative research on field tests for wood preservatives out of ground contact in conjunction with methods for preconditioning test specimens prior to test" (FACT) one aim was to establish the suitability of the European lap-joint test (as it is described in ENV 12037:1996) to assess wood preservatives in the field in EHC 3. Scots ...
M Grinda, Ö Bergman, H-V Borck, D Dickinson, P Esser, R Gründlinger, H Leithoff, S Molnar, L Paajanen, N Pfabigan, E D Suttie, F Thomassin, T Nilsson, J Van Acker, M Van Der Zee, A Voss
Accelerated testing for out of ground contact using natural biological preconditioning: Part 2
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20108
Small blocks of scots pine sapwood were treated, buried in vermiculite and exposed to natural microbial colonisation during outdoor exposure prior to laboratory decay testing. An EN 84-type leach trial was carried out on unexposed samples. Periodic microbial isolations, moisture content, permeability and weight loss tests were also conducted. The experiment ran for 12 months. The colonisation of t...
S Molnar, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
The “wire-loop slicing technique” for the rapid field collection of large numbers of Coptotermes acinaciformis termites from above-ground mound colonies
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10583
This technique of rapidly slicing through an above-ground C. acinaciformis mound colony with a steel wire-loop attached to a vehicle allows the collection of large numbers of termites. The sliced mound topples onto a tarpaulin arranged on the ground, the outer wall layers break away in large segments, and the carton materials incorporating the termites are readily collected and transferred to larg...
B M Ahmed, J R J French