Your search resulted in 176 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph
A deflection test for monitoring decay in miniature beams
1986 - IRG/WP 2269
A laboratory apparatus for assessing decay in small stakes is described. It involves the measurement of deflection in a static bending apparatus using a displacement transducer linked to a microcomputer. Measurements are non-destructive, rapid, accurate and automatic and decay can be assessed repeatedly over long time periods....
S M Gray
Acetylation of lignocellulosic materials
1989 - IRG/WP 3516
A simplified procedure for the acetylation of lignocellulosic materials has been developed. The acetylation is done with a limited amount of liquid acetic anhydride without the addition of a catalyst or an organic co-solvent. Dimensional stability and biological resistance are both much improved by the acetylation. Equilibrium moisture content in acetylated material is considerably lower than in u...
P Larsson, A-M Tillman
Effect of soft-rot decay on the static bending strength of wood
1991 - IRG/WP 2361
In this study, a modified static bending test has been developed as a method for measuring soft-rot decay in soil bed studies. A good correlation was found between the strength loss of the southern pine test specimens and extent of decay. This data suggests that it may be possible to develop a dynamic test based on stress relaxation that is more sensitive than static bending....
D D Nicholas, J A Wilson, R C Vasishth
A Preliminary Report on the Properties of Engineered Wood Composite Panels Treated with Copper Naphthenate
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40294
This paper reports on our preliminary investigation of the properties of randomly oriented strandboard which had waterborne or powdered copper naphthenate (CuN) incorporated into the board during manufacture. When compared to zinc borate-treated controls (ZnB), the mechanical properties of strandboard (MOR, MOE, work-to-maximum load, internal bond strength) were not adversely affected by treatmen...
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes
Decrease of the antidecay resistance of beech wood treated with organotin fungicides after its natural ageing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30185
The antidecay resistance of beech-wood samples (120 x 8.5 x 8.5 (MM)) treated with tributyltin fungicides gradually decreased due to prolongation of their natural ageing: tributyltin fungicides (TBTO, TBTS, TBTCA, TBT-DEDTK were applied by pressure impregnation technique in ethanole solutions (c = 0. 1%, 0.33% or 1%); treated beech-wood samples were naturally aged without their contact with grou...
The effect of hemicellulose degradation on the mechanical properties of wood during brown rot decay
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20219
Incipient decay of wood by brown rot fungi causes measurable strength losses in wood before measurable weight loss occurs. Previous studies have shown that the high levels of strength loss that occur during incipient brown rot decay may be related to loss in hemicellulose. This paper investigates the effect of decay on hemicellulose composition and the relationship to the mechanical properties of ...
S F Curling, C A Clausen, J E Winandy
Paper for discussion - Incising of spruce to improve preservative penetration
1973 - IRG/WP 318
Large quantities of whitewood or Norway spruce (Picea abies) are regularly imported into the United Kingdom from continental Europe. In addition, increasing amounts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) are likely to become available over the next decade from the Forestry Commission. In many ways spruce is a good structural timber, eg it is relatively cheap and easily available, it has adequate stren...
W B Banks
Strength properties of preservative treated pine and spruce wood after super-heated steaming
1984 - IRG/WP 3313
Possible changes of strength properties of CCF pressure impregnated pine and spruce with subsequent steaming at 110°C respective 120°C for 30 min were examined. For spruce analysis of variance indicated that none of the processes had a significant effect on bending strength, compression strength and the corresponding modulus of elasticity as well as on impact bending strength and shear strength ...
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated hardwoods in ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2172
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated timber in ground contact is described. It uses partially sealed blocks of timber which are treated, leached and sawn into small stakelets for soil exposure in a fungal cellar. Performance is monitored by the loss of static bending strength with time, and a simple apparatus for measuring the deflection of a stakelet under a l...
E F Baines
In-ground field test of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood and heartwood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30336
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood and heartwood stakes treated with CCA-C and creosote were tested for one- year in a field plot in Bartın region in Turkey. Scots pine heartwood stakes had lower preservative retention than sapwood stakes. Bending strength of the stakes was decreased after impregnation and one-year field test. While the bending strength of untreated sapwood was 93....
H Sivrikaya, H Hafizoglu
Supercritical fluid treatment: Effects on bending strength of white spruce heartwood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20008
The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on wood strength were evaluated using white spruce heartwood, a species known to be especially susceptible to collapse during exposure to higher pressures. The effects of pressures of 2000 or 3600 psig and temperatures of 40 or 80°C were evaluated using 30 or 60 minute exposure periods. No significant differences were noted in modulus of rupture or modu...
S M Smith, J J Morrell, E Sahle-Demessie, K L Levien
Alternatives to CCA-treated Pinus radiata as vineyard posts
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50212
An estimated 10 million trellis posts per year are used in Australian vineyards and about 75% of these are CCA-treated Pinus radiata. CCA-treated Pinus radiata posts are brittle and at times in short supply. Use of some products containing CCA is being restricted in Australia. Recently, plantation forestry has expanded rapidly for disposal of industrial and irrigation wastewater. Thinnings from th...
M Mollah, J Smith, K McCarthy, L J Cookson
Evaluation of bending strength by non-destructive methods of Ezomatzu with white pocket rot
1991 - IRG/WP 2371
The possibility of application of three non-destructive methods was examined for evaluation of bending strength of ezomatsu (Picea jezoensis CARR.) with white pocket rot. As non-destructive methods, the measurements of ultrasonic wave propagation time, impact-induced stress wave propagation time and penetration depth of pin of "PILODYN Wood Tester" were applied to compare with visual evaluation of...
Relationship between the bending strength and the degree of termite attacks on western hemlock by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1990 - IRG/WP 1434
For the examination of the relationship between the bending strength and the degree of termite attacks, Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla Sarg.) was used. Sixty specimens (4.5 x 4.5 x 82 cm³) were attacked by termites at the culture room of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The termites were introduced on the central parts (10 cm) of specimens. In the case of the 2 points loading, the bending mom...
K Suzuki, T Tanaka
Studies and experiences of occurrence and development of soft rot in salt-treated poles of pine (Pinus sylvestris) installed in Swedish transmission lines in the years 1940-1945
1977 - IRG/WP 277
The present work describes the result of microscopic examinations of some 2,000 borings extracted from 20 to 23-year-old salt-treated poles (Scots pine) from the southern and central parts of Sweden. The purpose was to map out the occurrence of soft rot in Sweden and its influence on the mechanical strength of the poles as well as to contribute to the development of new and more satisfactory metho...
Laser incising of spruce lumber for improved preservative penetration
1991 - IRG/WP 3646
Red spruce heartwood specimens were incised using a range of laser beam power levels and pulse durations. The penetration of CCA through these holes into the wood was monitored after pressure treatment. In addition, green and dried spruce samples were incised using two patterns with incision densities of either 16.1 holes/in² or 21.3 holes/in². Following CCA pressure treatment the samples were t...
B Goodell, F A Kamke, Jing Liu
Changes in some important mechanical and physical properties of untreated and treated mining timber after exposure to the conditions of a colliery
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20082
Each of salt treated and untreated mining timber (wedge) pairs with 5x15 cm² cross-section and 155 cm length prepared from Scots pine, Bornmüller's fir and oriental beech was cut in the small standard test specimens to determine changes in some important mechanical and physical properties, 13 month after exposure to the conditions of Kozlu Hard Coal Mines in the depth of 52 m. Thus, the...
Bending strength of heat-treated spruce and pine timber
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40242
Heat-treatment of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) beams (45 x 145 mm) gave a reduction in bending strength of approximately 50%. The bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity) only decreased by 3.5%. Tests were carried out according to EN 408. Another effect of the heat-treatment was increased variation in bending strength. The 5th percentile value of the bending strength, the so c...
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, F Brem
Supply of wooden transmission and telephone poles in Tanzania: Problems and possible solutions
1987 - IRG/WP 3424
The eucalypts which have been used widely for utility poles for more than 30 years have dwindled remarkably from traditional supply areas. Consequently, pole-using authorities are considering importing poles from abroad. This alternative is considered unrealistic and costly. The aims of this paper are: - to dispel fears of pole scarcity and to show that an abundant resource of a variety of tree sp...
K K Murira, S A Diwani
Wood cement composites using spent CCA treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50126
The feasibility of using spent or out-of-service CCA treated wood as a component of wood/cement composites was evaluated. Cold pressed wood particle cement boards were made using CCA treated particles from a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) pole removed from service and from untreated red pine wood from a new pole. Boards were manufactured using a range of wood to cement ratios and water to cement r...
Chen Huang, P A Cooper
High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 1: A new tool for quality control of thermally modified timber
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20346
Thermal modification processes improve durability and dimensional stability of wood, but the strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised and need to be considered with respect to industrial quality control. Results from standard dynamic strength testing, such as impact bending tests, suffer from high variability, and therefore require a high number of replicates. To overcome ...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher
Cantilever bending test of furfurylated poles
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40424
Ten, 8 m long poles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were treated with furfuryl alcohol to a WPG of approximately 40 %. A bending test was performed according to the principles in the draft European standard for wooden poles, prEN 14229 - Structural timber - Wood Poles for overhead lines. The bending strength and stiffness (MOE) for the poles tested were compared to an earlier study by the Swedish Wood Preservation Committee. In the latter study untreated, CCA-treated, ammoniacal Cu-PCP treated and creosoted poles were tested in bending. These types of poles were considered not to differ in strength and stiffness. The results of the furfurylated poles fit well with the results from the previous study. The bending strength and MOE values obtained are compared to the upper and lower 95-percentile values of the results from the previous study and all poles treated with furfuryl alcohol fit within this interval.Thus, this study indicates that a treatment with furfuryl alcohol does not result in a decrease of strength or stiffness. Further testing with a larger population of poles is necessary in order to get a statistically reliable result. In addition to further demonstration of the durability, the treatment process must be optimised to ensure full sapwood penetration and measures have to be taken to avoid the serious cracking observed in this trial before furfurylation can be considered for treatment of Pinus sylvestris poles.
R Ziethén, J Jermer, A Clang
Repairing of wooden elements by beta-method using carbon, steel or beech rods
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40488
Presented paper is focused on repairing of wooden elements by Beta joints reinforced with carbon, steel or beech rods, and on comparing the efficiency of these joints with traditional carpentry joints. In model laboratory experiments have been determined the bending strength (fm) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of control or original elements (fm-Control; Eo) from Norway spruce (Picea abies Kars...
Hydrothermal modification for upgrading the durability properties of soft deciduous wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40494
To extend the application potentialities of soft deciduous wood, upgrading the durability properties, hydrothermal modification (HTM) of aspen alder and birch wood was investigated. The treatment was conducted in a multifunctional laboratory device WTT. In the previous cases it has been found that the treatment at 160oC improves the durability insufficiently. The modification at 180oC ensured a hi...
B Andersons, I Andersone, V Biziks, I Irbe, J Chirkova, E Sansonetti, J Grinins, H Militz