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Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely empl...
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


An evaluation on durability of untreated mining timber support
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20121
Wedge blocks in dimension of 5 x 7 to 8 x 155 cm3 were cut from indigeneous scots pine pitprops. Each of wedge block pairs were numbered and half of them were placed as the test blocks between the steel arches and the strata in a hard coal pit. Controls in laboratory and test wedge blocks in the mine were then sawn into 20 by 20 by 300 mm standard test sticks. Impact bending, static bending and MO...
A Bobat


New approaches to practical evaluation method of bio-degradation of wooden construction - Non-destructive detection of defects using radar technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20214
There have been a number of researches and developments on the techniques and apparatus for the nondestructive evaluation of the biological deterioration in wood and wooden constructions, such as decay or insect attack in house, public buildings or in historically important architectures. As for the detection of the decay in wood, techniques using sound in audible or in ultrasonic frequency ranges...
Y Fujii, Y Komatsu, Y Yanase, S Okumura, Y Imamura, M Tarumi, H Takiuchi, A Inai


Performance of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) treated panels of Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria against bio-deterioration at Krishnapatnam harbour, east coast of India
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30310
Results of investigations on the durability of light weight timber species (Specific gravity below 0.4) i.e., Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria in treated and untreated condition conducted at Krishnapatnam harbour (Lat 13o28’ to 13o59’ N; Long: 80o10’ to 80o16’E) along the east coast of India are reported in the paper. Exposure trails were conducted with panels (Size: 30 x 3.8 x...
B Tarakanadha, N R Raveendra Prasad, K S Rao


Bio-deterioration of Southern Pine Stakes at Geographically Different Testing Sites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20609
Southern pine (SP) sapwood is commonly used in preparing the standardized stakes for performance testing as referenced in the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Book of Standards. For example, the standardized above ground test methods E16/E18 and the standardized ground contact test method E7 all use sapwood of SP as the preferred wood species for preservative performance test. In this...
Jun Zhang, J Horton


Efficacy of Erythropleum suaveolens (potrodom) and Distemonanthus benthamianus (bonsamdua) water extractives on the durability of five Ghanaian less used timber species of varying perviousness and retentiveness
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30705
Conventional wood preservatives are not only toxic to target bio-deterioration organisms but also to humans, other organisms and the environment. In an effort to find preservatives that are less toxic or non-toxic to man, other organisms and the environment, efficacy of branch bark and heartwood water extracts (0.65 g/ml) of Erythropleum suaveolens (potrodom) and Distemonanthus benthamianus (bonsa...
A Asamoah, K Frimpong-Mensah, C Antwi-Boasiako


Loss of preservatives from treated wood during service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3734
During the 23rd IRG conference in Harrogate the matter of preservative losses from treated wood during service was raised. We were asked to collect information in this field and ask now for help from you. Many tests have been carried out at a laboratory scale to study fixation and leaching from wood treated with different preservatives. Very little, however, is reported on losses of preservatives ...
M-L Edlund, D Rudolph


Wood preservation in the USA
1982 - IRG/WP 3215
This report is a comprehensive survey of the status of the wood preservation field in the U.S.A. at the start of the 1980s. The importance of wood preservation is discussed and its industry described. Various statistics and analyses regarding the use of treated wood have been compiled. Both pressure and non-pressure applications have been covered, as well as remedial treatments and pest control op...
D D Nicholas, R Cockcroft


Laboratory culturing and decay testing with Physisporinus vitreus and Donkioporia expansa orginating from identical cooling tower environments show major differences
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10184
Both Basidiomycete fungi Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst. and Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouz. were isolated from identical cooling tower environments. Azobé heartwood (Lophira alata), a very durable tropical wood species was totally deteriorated in cooling towers in a similar way by both fungi. First attempts to culture Physisporinus vitreus in laboratory circumstances sh...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Assessment of losses of wood preservatives from treated wood by leaching into the environment
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-13
Wood preservative chemicals may be lost from treated timber by leaching into water or soil. The degree to which this might occur and its effect on the environment is difficult to assess quantitatively due to the absence of appropriate test methods. This paper describes work to assess test methodology capable of allowing the rates of loss of wood preservative from treated timber to be quantified. T...
R J Orsler, G E Holland


The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in...
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna


Use of the Pilodyn to assess deterioration of treated aspen waferboard after 30 months of outdoor exposure
1986 - IRG/WP 2254
Samples of preservative treated aspen waferboard exposed outdoors for 30 mo. were compared using pin penetrations of the 6 Joule Pilodyn. These results correlated well with rankings of treatment performance based on more laborious standard mechanical tests, and demonstrate the potential for use of the Pilodyn as a tool to evaluate wood composites in test exposures with minimal destruction....
E L Schmidt, M G Dietz


The rate of redistribution and loss of leachable preservatives under service conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30026
This paper describes experiments carried out to determine patterns of preservative redistribution and any associated losses which occur when wood containing unfixed water-soluble wood preservatives is exposed to service conditions where leaching is possible. Scots pine sapwood treated with disodium octaborate was used as a model system. Results are recorded and discussed for trials representing pa...
R J Orsler, G E Holland


Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourte...
R Mouzouras


Wood preservation and the environment: A Canadian perspective
1990 - IRG/WP 3577
The non-pressure (surface) and pressure treatment of wood impacts on the environment in four ways. These are: through the production of treated wood at sawmills and pressure treating facilities; during the storage of treated wood prior to use; when the pressure treated wood is placed in service; and finally, when the treated product reaches the end of its useful life and must be disposed. By refer...
J N R Ruddick


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Fore...
G Ochiel


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Highly virulent wood-rotting Basidiomycetes in cooling tower timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10125
Over the past ten years most industrial cooling towers changed their water treatment systems in order to meet environmental requirements. Since this alterations wood rot attack has been reported more frequently. Several Basidiomycete fungi were isolated and determined. Amongst the most important ones are strains of Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst., Phellinus contiguus (Fr.) Pat. and Don...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, V Rijckaert


The shower test method. A leaching test for assessing preservative losses from treated timber under simulated open storage conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-04
In the late 1980's against the background of increasing environmental concern a laboratory based accelerated leaching test method for assessing preservative losses-from stored, treated timber was developed by the Dutch organisation for applied Scientific Research (TNO). This test method quantifies the amount of specific preservative components which leach from treated timber under simulat...
J B G A Havermans, W J Homan, M J Boonstra


Effect of vegetable compost on leaching of CCA components from treated wood - An Update
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50048
In an earlier study, the effect of compost on CCA-C leaching was compared with leaching losses under different exposure conditions. Small treated cubes (25 mm³) were destructively sampled over a 12 month period and the residual CCA determined for exposure to compost in a compost bin, exposed to natural rain and buried in soil. This study provides a comparison after 3 years of samples exposed to c...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


The rate of losses of creosote from power transmission poles during storage
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-24
The purpose of this work was to study the rate of losses of creosote from power transmission poles and its consequences on the expected life of the poles stored for a long period in horizontal position. Apart from this main target of the study, the results could allow a rough estimate of the load of creosote substances on the soil especially when the poles are stored and this load accumulates over...
Z Vassou, A Satanakis, C Koutsikopoulus, J Petinarakis


Some experiences with attack of microorganisms on wooden constructions supporting foundations of houses and bridges
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10232
Reconstructions of bridges and public buildings or damage of houses during the construction of subway lines in Berlin have led to a number of inspections of wooden foundations, mostly pine or spruce piles, representing service lives of between ca. 70 and 140 years. In all cases bacterial attack was found both in wood submerged in ground water and in surface water. The extent of deterioration diffe...
M Grinda


Volatile losses of wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 236
The purpose of the work we have undertaken so far has been to try to quantify the volatile losses which occur in treated timber, and to examine some of the factors which influence these losses. The preservative compound chosen for the initial part of the programme was the contact insecticide g-BHC. This was attractive for several reasons, not the least of which was that specific and sensitive anal...
J W W Morgan, D F Purslow


Relative performance of copper/chrome/boron (CCB) and copper/chrome/arsenate (CCA) in ground contact
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3694
The performance of four retentions each of an oxide CCA formulation and a salt formulation of CCB in radiata pine and European beech was compared after 18 years' field exposure. In radiata pine CCA oxide was more effective (4 failures out of 40) than CCB (9 failures out of 40). However, in European beech CCB was substantially more effective (22 failures) than CCA oxide (all failed). Analy...
M E Hedley


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