IRG Documents Database and Compendium


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Fungistatic activity of quinolizidine and bisquinolizidine alkaloids against A. niger
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30699
In order to determine the relation between the structural properties and fungistatic activity of quinolizidine and bisquinolizidine alkaloids, the bioactive derivatives of cytisine, sparteine and lupanine were tested for the inhibitory activity against the microfungus causing mould growth phenomenon (Aspergillus niger van Tieghem ATCC 6275). The compounds tested were screened for antifungal properties using the bioautography-TLC. According to the results, the following cytisines showed good activity against mould; spirocytisine, , 3,5-dibromocytisine, bromo-N-boccytisine, N-Boccytisine, 3-bromobenzylocytisine, 4-bromo-benzylcytisine, 3-iodo-benzylcytisine, 4-iodobenzylcytisine.
P W Kwaśniewska-Sip, G Cofta, B Mazela, L Ross Gobakken, A K Przybył


Biocidal screening method of wood extractives by a direct use of cellulose TLC plate
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20226
Most of the methods to evaluate the biological durability of woods have focused on decay fungi and termite as deteriorating organisms and it is well known that one of the most important factors affecting the biological characteristics of wood is extractives. Bioassays for evaluating the biological activities of wood extractives have been mainly conducted with treated filter papers for termites or extractives- containing agar media for decay fungi. Using these methods, the separation of crude extracts and bioassays are very time consuming. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a useful method for separating the mixture of organic compounds. It is also applicable to the crude extracts of wood consisting of many compounds. In TLC, silicagel, cellulose and other materials are used as stationary phases and we speculated that it would be to sepatare the crude extract on cellulose TLC plate (Cell - TLC) and directly apply it to bioassays, since termites and decay fungi can use the cellulose layer in Cell - TLC as their carbon sources. In this paper we report the applicability of Cell - TLC for biocidal screening of wood extractives against termites and decay fungi.
R Yusiasih, T Yoshimura, T Umezawa, Y Imamura


Fungal siderophores and their rôle in wood biodegradation
1990 - IRG/WP 1442
Iron and other metals such as manganese, play an important role in the metabolic functions of fungi that cause wood deterioration. These transition metals are also found in, or associated with, the extracellular fungal enzymes shown to be directly involved in the decay process. Recently our research group was able to show that siderophores (low molecular weight biological chelators) are produced by both brown and white rot fungi. These siderophores may function to scavenge transition metals for fungal metabolism and extracellular enzyme production. In addition, our preliminary work with the purified siderophores suggests that these compounds may play a more direct role in lignin modification, similar to that reported by other researchers investigating the properties of 'biomimetic' structures. Because of the low molecular weight of the siderophore-metal complex (500-1000 daltons), and the oxidizing potential of the bound transition metals, certain siderophore structures could also play a potential role in early stages of cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. Developing a better understanding of the action of fungal siderophores, their role in scavenging metals for fungal metabolism, and their possible function directly in lignocellulose degradation, will help us to better understand how wood degradation occurs.
J Jellison, B Goodell, F Fekete, V Chandhoke


Evidence for actinomycete degradation of wood cell walls
1990 - IRG/WP 1444
Several unique patterns of degradation occurring in wood cell walls have been observed in wooden stakes inserted in unsterile soil in the laboratory. Some of the patterns have also been observed in coniferous wood taken from forest floors. All the observed attack types occur within wood cell walls, mainly within the S2 layer. Attack is characterised by channels of varying diameter or small fusiform cavities arranged in the form of a rosette. Some channels are narrow, 0.5-1.0 µm, and form a highly branched network. Other channels are wider, up to approx. 2-3 µm and less branched. All channels are produced by hyphae growing within the wood cell walls. Attack has been observed to arise from the branching of thin hyphae growing longitudinally in the fibre lumina. The small diameter of the hyphae and the fact that these decay patterns have not been described for wood degrading fungi indicate that actinomycetes may be responsible.
T Nilsson, G F Daniel, S L Bardage


Composition of urushiol and cardanol from Japanese lacquer tree and related origins
1991 - IRG/WP 3667
Wood may be protected against insects and weathering based on the paints. Japan has been used to protect wood from weathering, insects, checking that ordinarily develop when unprotected wood is exposed to the weather. Japaned wood gives a hard, durable, various gloss especially black. The yield of culture-urus hiol obtained from Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vermiciflua Stokes) was 0.6% based on the dry weight of Japanese lacquer root. 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8' ,11' ,14') catechol and 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8', 11' ,13')-phenol were obtained from lacquer-urushiol. The composition of urushiol and cardanol was investigated from different origins including adventitious root, natural root, Japanese lacquer and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Also, the composition of the olefinic components of urushiol and cardanol from different origins was examined. On the other hand, 0.4% of cardanol existed in Japanese lacquer. Cardanol exists in both Japanese lacquer and the tissue culture of Japanese lacquer tree. The isolation of cardanol from Japanese lacquer and the adventitious roots of tissue cultures supports the presumed path way of urushiol, cardanol, cardol, and anacardic acid.
Y Inoue


Partial characterization of inhibitors extracted from pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood active against germination of wood rotting fungi
1988 - IRG/WP 1351
Germination inhibitors in pine sapwood could be extracted and separated with the aid of solvent partitioning and chromatography on silicic acid. The inhibitory action was tested by three different bioassays. Active fractions have been characterized by TLC and HPLC. Inhibitory activity could be correlated with phenolic compounds. The minimum active concentration of inhibitors have been determined.
J Bjurman