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A review of the configuration of bordered pits to stimulate the fluid flow
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40315
As the bordered pits have generally been thought to have an influence on the refractory nature of softwoods, structural behaviour of this conducting pathways is discussed according to the published literature. Various theories on the role of bordered pits to axial flow are expounded in respect to preservative treatment. Pit aspiration is also reviewed....
I Usta


Water sprinkled pine wood: A microscope study on boards showing streaking
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10033
Boards sawn from the outer sapwood of pine lumber previously water sprinkled for periods of 10-18 weeks and kiln dried, showed streaking after staining. Two types of enhanced stain uptake were noted: 1) a more concentrated and localized form after 10 weeks and 2) a more diffuse type which developed in later stages of water sprinkling. Areas showing enhanced stain uptake were examined using light a...
G F Daniel, T Elowson, T Nilsson, A P Singh, K Liukko


Bordered Pit Imaging
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10773
New findings about bordered pits will be presented using the latest microscopy techniques. Three-dimensional imagery at the nanolevel is used, and short 3-D movies will shown as part of the discussion on this topic to reveal new features that have not previously been reported in pits. The implications for both microorganism penetration through lignified cells as well as preservative penetration i...
D Mascheck, B Goodell, H Militz, M Lessard, J Jellison


Studies on the permeability of Norway spruce (Picea abies)
1987 - IRG/WP 2295
It is well known that the bordered pits play a dominating role for liquid transport in softwoods. The mechanism behind pit aspiration during drying or heartwood formation seems to be well understood. The reason why the fixation of the membrane (torus) to the pit opening remains almost irreversible is, however, still unclear. A technique has been developed combining so-called "solvent exchange dryi...
I Johansson, K Nordman-Edberg


Modelling hyphal growth of the bio-incising fungus Physisporinus vitreus
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10710
The white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus preferentially degrades the pit membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and subsequently enhances wood permeability. Thus, P. vitreus can be used to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally-benign wood modification substances. This process can be used to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species by the wood indu...
M Fuhr, C Stührk, F W M R Schwarze, M Schubert, H J Herrmann


Copper Nanoparticles in Southern Pine Wood Treated with a Micronised Preservative: Nanodistribution of Copper in the Pit Membrane and Border of an Earlywood Bordered Pit
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30566
Copper nanoparticles can penetrate the cell walls of unlignified parenchyma cells in southern pine wood treated with a micronised wood preservative, but they are excluded from lignified tracheid walls. This paper extends these observations to include the cell wall layers of the bordered pit. Focused ion beam and ion milling were used to make an ultra-thin section of the cell wall layers of an earl...
H Matsunaga, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, P Evans


Aspects of diffusion of boron through wood
1984 - IRG/WP 3298
Boron compounds have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of wood destroying insects and fungi. They are cheap, have low mammalian toxicity and their application in the treatment of wood does not demand specialized equipment. These attributes make them specially attractive to developing countries. Currently, however, little is known about the mechanism of diffusion of boron through wood. Effecti...
S Iddi


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein


Probing red maple pit membrane pore size at FSP and OD using polystyrene macromolecules
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40217
A modified solute exclusion technique was used to pressure impregnate a polystyrene molecular weight (MW) series dissolved in styrene into red maple samples at approximately the fiber saturation point (FSP) and oven dry (OD). Radial penetration was less than tangential and FSP less than OD. There was a marked penetration change with MW in the tangential direction, although there appeared to be a ...
A Omidvar, M H Schneider, A R P Van Heiningen


Ponding of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) - 1. The effect of bacteria on wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10265
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) wood panels which had been ponded for periods ranging from 2 to 12 weeks were examined by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for bacterial colonisation of wood and degradation of pit membranes. After 2 weeks of ponding bacteria colonised the outer few cells of wood, ...
A P Singh, Y S Kim, U Schmitt, B S Dawson


Water-storage for improving the permeability of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40129
The viable bacterial counts in sapwood and intermediate wood of sugi bolts increased immediately after floated in a fresh water pond. Bacterial invasion into the heartwood was not detected apparently during water-storage for 36 weeks, although a few bacterial species have inhabited in freshly-cut heartwood samples. The bacterial species isolated from the water-stored bolts were almost Gramnegative...
S Ohta, S Doi


Detection of methanogenic bacteria in mining timber
1988 - IRG/WP 1352
Methane explosions in gold mines have been attributed to spontaneous ignition of methane/air mixtures. Biogenesis of methane in the heartwood of diseased trees has been shown, but never in timber in service. Studies were therefore undertaken to establish whether methanogens were present in wooden pit props. Core samples were removed by Pressler increment borer from props in disused areas 2,600 m d...
L D Abraham, K Westlake, R I Mackie, J F Putterill, A A W Baecker.


A comparison between high and conventional incision densities for improving preservative treatment of Douglas-fir heartwood lumber
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40009
Incising is required for the preservative treatment of most wood species from the western United States; however, there is considerable debate about the density of incisions required to achieve adequate treatment. Previous studies have shown that the incision effect on treatment is relatively narrow, suggesting that incision densities should be significantly increased over current practices and st...
S T Lebow, J J Morrell


Methods for improving preservative penetration into wood: a review
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40227
Pressure treatment technologies have been available since the mid-1830's, but the processes used for wood treatment are still largely unable to overcome the fundamental limitations of flow through semi-permeable pit membranes. Instead, methods have arisen that attempt to improve treatability of the wood including incising, compression rolling, through boring, or radial drilling. Other a...
J J Morrell, P I Morris


Wood structure in relation to excessive absorption - a literature survey
1971 - IRG/WP 300
This literature study, composed in connection with 'the structure of wood in relation to the excessive absorption', started from the idea that the subject only could be dealt with successfully if the structure was taken into account in relation to a normal absorption pattern in so far as this knowledge can enlighten the understanding of the abnormal situation. The normal penetrat...
S M Jutte


Hydrolysis of bordered pits during colonization of conifers by brown-rot fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10103
Brown-rot decay results in rapid reduction in degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose with concomitant strength loss (MOR) without removing lignin. Development of new methods of wood protection will require focusing on early events in the sequence of depolymerization. Bordered pit membranes (sapwood) represent a readily available source of non-lignified carbohydrate, ie. pectin and cellulos...
F Green III, J L Tschernitz, T A Kuster, T L Highley


Permeability measurements on surface layers for detecting wood with abnormally high permeability
1988 - IRG/WP 2298
Wet storage of timber during the warm period of the year may lead to an increased permeability of the wood, an undesirable phenomenon for several wood industries and also for many end-uses. Neither before nor after drying, such wood with "wet storage damage" can be visually distinguished from wood with a normal permeability. A non-destructive method for inspecting the permeability of surface layer...
J B Boutelje, G Hägglund


A study of methanogenesis and sulphate-reduction: A possible source of explosive gas mixtures in a gold mine
1989 - IRG/WP 1399
Previous work isolated anaerobic bacteria from timbers and drainage water in a gold mine. The present work identifies the predominant methanogen in the mine ecosystem as Methanobacterium bryantii and sulphate-reducing isolates as Desulphovibrio desulphuricans and Desulphotomaculum antarcticum. Laboratory studies using model systems evaluate the activity of methanogenic and sulphate-reducing bacter...
L D Abraham, J F Putterill, A A W Baecker


Use of Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy for in situ Observation of Degradation of Wood Surfaces during Artificial Weathering
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20489
Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) is capable of observing electrically non-conductive materials like wood without the need to render the surface conductive by applying a coating of gold, platinum or carbon. Hence, there is the possibility that VPSEM could be used to non-destructively follow the structural changes occurring at wood surfaces during weathering, because specimens ...
F Hatae, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, H Matsunaga, J Matsumura


Investigation of enzymatic effect on pit membranes by light and scanning electron microscopy
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40721
Spruce wood, one of the refractory wood species has pit membranes, which has an influence on the permeability of wood providing liquid flow between the wood cells. However, these membranes tend to close under the fiber saturated point (FSD), which makes impregnation more difficult. In this study spruce sapwood samples were treated with two different commercial enzymes to improve the permeability o...
S Durmaz, Ü C Yildiz, M Öztürk, B Serdar