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Electrokinetic Accelerated Ingress of Boron After Surface Treatment of Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40372
In this work electrokinetic acceleration of boron penetration after surface treatment is proposed in order to offer an alternative to the often low penetration rates based on diffusion. Electrodialytic experiments showed that boric acid could be transported as negatively charged complexes with tartaric acid in aqueous solutions at pH 4-5. Boric acid could not be transported when tartaric acid was ...
I V Christensen


Aspects of diffusion of boron through wood
1984 - IRG/WP 3298
Boron compounds have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of wood destroying insects and fungi. They are cheap, have low mammalian toxicity and their application in the treatment of wood does not demand specialized equipment. These attributes make them specially attractive to developing countries. Currently, however, little is known about the mechanism of diffusion of boron through wood. Effecti...
S Iddi


Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund


Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden


Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus nig...
S C Croan, T L Highley


Insect resistance of preservative treated tropical plywood against Lyctus
1990 - IRG/WP 1453
Seven plywood types composed of tropical wood species, vulnerable to Lyctus, were treated with various commercial water-borne and oil-borne preservatives. A wide range of preservative retentions was obtained by treating boards with dip treatment, steeping, double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnations. Selected samples were subsequently tested for their insect resistance against Lyctus africanus...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Pallaske


Non-pressure treatability of plywood by CCA, CCB and boron
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40295
Study on diffusibility and absorbability of CCA, CCB and boric acid in 3 mm thick 3-ply hardwood plywood at water saturated and air-dry conditions and dipped at same concentration (5%) and same duration of time (12 hours) revealed complete diffusion of all the preservatives at water saturated condition. Only the CCA-C was found absorbed by the plywood at air-dry condition. The rate of absorption a...
A K Lahiry


Leaching of the new boron based biocide from coated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30267
We investigated leachability of the new boron based biocide - a complex of an amine and boric acid - from vacuum impregnated spruce wood samples. It was determined by the standard ENV 1250-2 procedure that the new biocide is susceptible to leaching so from the water borne as well as from the ethanol borne boron containing preservative treated wood. Leaching may be retarded by application of surfac...
M Petric, M Pavlic, F Cadez


CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot....
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal ac...
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner


Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylot...
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz


The long-term performance of boron treated joinery in service - A case study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20208
Joinery treated with borates 23 years ago and in service in residential flats was surveyed and analysed for boron content. The levels of boron still present were sufficient to prevent decay. None of the windows surveyed showed any decay despite the fact that moisture and sapwood contents were conducive to decay....
D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Reticulitermes lucifugus Rossi, and its damages in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1152
The moist-wood termite, Reticulitermes lucifugus Rossi, is generally observed on the wood material which has a direct contact with the soil as trunks and fence stakes. It was reported to be found in some provinces in Turkey. The termite has been seen in these areas so far at the endemic level, but any considerable damage or epidemy has not yet been reported. Considerable damages were observed on t...
O A Sekendiz


Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers' e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-...
J A Drysdale


Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid....
K Lutomski


Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden poles
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40263
The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the finite element method and finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are pres...
K Krabbenhøft, P Hoffmeyer, C G Bechgaard, L Damkilde


Report of meetings of remedial treatments Sub-group held in Madrid, Spain during 27-28 April 1988
1988 - IRG/WP 3502
J N R Ruddick


Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning,...
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri


Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge


Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion pro...
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz


Diffusion of fused borate rods in top ends of poles
1989 - IRG/WP 3518
Diffusion tests of fused borate rods were carried out on extremities of sapwood poles in service. Rods were set in drills under the cone with or without addition of liquid Boracol 40. After one year of weathering, a good diffusion in the slice under the cone and even below the slice and in the cone itself was observed in Scots pine and spruce poles. The rods were still intacts and constitute, in f...
D Dirol, J P Guder


A new approach to the maintenance of wooden railway sleepers. (Second report)
1988 - IRG/WP 3492
The microenvironment and micro-ecology of wooden railway sleepers was investigated to assess their condition to determine the necessary treatment, repair and replacement criteria. In this report the efficacy of the secondary preservative treatment with solid boron rods is discussed and the development of an in-situ, nondestructive test method based on the creation and assessment of structural dyna...
W Beauford, P I Morris, A M Brown, D J Dickinson


The influence of boric acid on respiratory quotients and methane production of subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10136
The toxicity of boron compounds to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was studied by analysing changes in the levels of oxygen uptake respiratory quotients and methane production. Termites were fed with filter paper treated at different levels of boric acid, the RQ was evaluated by constant volume manometry and the methane production by gas chromatography. Results are discussed in re...
L Nunes, D J Dickinson


The benefits to New Zealand of boron salt treatment of Pinus radiata
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3692
The historical reasons for New Zealand adopting boric salt diffusion of Pinus radiata are summarised, and present day processes and their associated costs are given. The biological hazards of using Pinus radiata untreated are then argued, using endemic fungal and insect species as examples, as well as a discussion of the risks from species that may yet be accidentally introduced into the country....
D J Cross


Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. U...
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara


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