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Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RWD 9472) in laboratory tests.
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods

Field performance of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30125
The effectiveness as antisapstain formulations of combinations of oxine copper (Cu-8), carbendazim, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, flusilazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), an alkanolamine borate (SB), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 2-n-octylisothiazolin -3-one (isothiazoline) and p-chlorophenyl-3-iodopropagilformal (CPIPF) was determined for freshly sawn, block-stacked radiata pine in three 18-week field trials: 1. Established in summer 1992 evaluating combinations of hexaconazole, carbendazim and DDAC. 2. Established in autumn/winter 1994 evaluating combinations of hexaconazole, carbendazim, DDAC, BAC and SB. 3. Established in autumn/winter 1995 evaluating combinations of triazoles, DDAC, Cu-8, carbendazim, CPIPF, isothiazoline and SB. Reference standards included: Cu-8; Cu-8 + carbendazim; IPBC + DDAC and TCMTB. In all tests, formulations containing carbendazim + hexaconazole + DDAC gave better protection for 12 and 18 weeks than most other experimental formulations and were equal to or better than commercial standards.
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals

Laboratory and Pilot Evaluation of Chlorothalonil Formulations for Mold and Stain Control on some Wood Species
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30317
Laboratory and pilot test of the efficacy of several fungicides such as chlorothalonil and carbendazim for control of mold and sap- stain on bamboo and slash pine and rubberwood were conducted in this paper. The result indicates that: -- Clorothalonil/carbendazim are more effective for controlling mold and stain than that of carbendazim alone in laboratory test. --Higher concentration at 0.1-0.2% of chlorothalonil with 0.05-0.1% carbendazim or 0.05-0.1% carbendazim alone are more effective for stain and mold control on slash pine than the formulations of lower concentration in the pilot test. The mixture formulations of 0.1-0.5% clorothalonil/carbendazim are more effective than 0.5%NaPCP or 0.2% carbendazim alone in controlling mold and fungi in rubberwood pilot test.
Mingliang Jiang, Zhaobang Li

Laboratory and field trials of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30146
This document covers the results of laboratory and field trials of combinations of fungicides formulated using a patented technology (PCT NZ 96/00143). A 3 week laboratory trial that uses radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branch discs as a substrate was used to determine which combinations possessed a suitable spectrum of fungitoxicity against key sapstain, mould and decay fungi. In particular fungitoxicity against Ophiostoma piceae H & P Syd was looked for as this is the most difficult fungus to control on freshly cut radiata pine in New Zealand. The most promising formulations were then tested using block stacked radiata pine stored for 11 weeks during a high hazard summer period. In general the field trial results corroborated with the laboratory disc trial results. The importance of a broad spectrum of fungitoxicity and in particular a high level of activity against O. piceae, was shown by both types of trial. A formulation containing hexaconazole (0.014%w/v) plus carbendazim (0.028%w/v) plus a quaternary ammonium compound (0.291%w/v) was particularly promising. This formulation achieved significantly better (5% level of probability) control than the commercial standards, for 11 weeks of summer storage. The low fungicide concentrations used auger well for it's cost effectiveness. It is believed that this was in part due to fungicide synergy, broad spectrum activity and the use of microemulsions and solutions of the key fungicide components.
R N Wakeling, P N Maynard, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter

Xylophene AS™, the challenge of developing a modern antisapstain formulation for the french market
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30250
In France Sodium Pentachlorophenol (NaPCP) has been used for more than 40 years for the protection of freshly cut and unseasoned lumber. The French sawmill industry requires a protection of 6 months and maximum 10% surface infection by moulds and/or sapstain fungi. However, this active substance did have some serious environmental flaws and no authorisation was granted for a direct contact of NaPCP treated timber with foodstuffs. During the last fifteen years many new formulations were put on the French market for the temporary protection of maritime and Scots pine. Many products gave varying degrees of protection (from a couple of weeks to maximum 4 months) and the required food-contact allowance was not possible with most of these formulations. For those reasons, DYRUP-XYLOCHIMIE put significant R & D resources into the development of a modern antisapstain formulation that met the efficacy requirements of the French industry, which had a favourable toxicological and environmental profile and could obtain a food-contact allowance without restrictions. A close collaboration with active ingredients suppliers such as JANSSEN PHARMACEUTICA NV and TROY CORPORATION was obtained as well. An internal developed field test was used to study the comparative efficacy of several fungicides (azaconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, metconazole, IPBC, carbendazim, isothiazolone and quaternary ammonium compounds) against bluestain and moulds. Based on the field efficacy several combinations of IPBC, propiconazole, carbendazim and isothiazolone were finally retained. Official laboratory tests (NF X 41-547) succeeded by internal field tests revealed a good compromise for a new formulation containing propiconazole, carbendazim and IPBC. This formulation was then officially tested according to the French standards : NF X 41-547 laboratory test and NF X 41-549 field test. Toxicological and ecotoxicity data were also gathered and a complete food contact allowance was obtained by the French Ministry of Economy; Finances and Industry. The formulation was then put on the market as XYLOPHENE AS™ and has now been in practical use for more than three years in several French sawmills with satisfactory results.
E Wozniak, L Cubizolles, N Delourme Fonseca, A R Valcke, J Gors

Susceptibility of antisapstain fungicides to rain wash-off
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30046
Results of trials using miniature timber packets and simulated rain wash-off are described. Six fungicidal actives in five commercial antisapstain formulations were involved, and a clear influence of rainfall timing after antisapstain treatment was demonstrated. Differences between actives and formulations were most marked where water-spray was applied in the first hour after treatment, though even when applied after a 48 hour delay there were up to ten-fold differences in the percentages mobilised. Possible mechanisms of fixation are discussed in relation to known formulation properties. Results from a full scale trial at a sawmill are also given, and comparison made with the small-scale packet experiments. It is concluded that the results were very similar. The work is extrapolated to the 'real-life' sawmill situation, and conclusions drawn as to the likely results of heavy rain exposure at different times after fungicidal treatment of timber.
R N Wakeling, D J Cross, D R Eden, P N Maynard

Evaluation of the effectiveness of defence anti-stain in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1990 - IRG/WP 3593
The anti-sapstain product Defence Anti-stain (DAS) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests during the years 1988 and 1989. Results of tests carried out by institutes and by own companies in countries like Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and Spain will be presented. In the several tests Defence Anti-stain showed a high fungicidal activity to sapstain and mould fungi on wood. The product is a promising alternative to sodium pentachlorophenoxide from biological and other product characteristics point of view.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver

Migration of chlorothalonil and carbendazim in fruits stored in wood treated with the anti-sapstain formulation Tuff Brite C
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50097
Fruits and vegetables stored in treated wood boxes are in contact with the products used for the treatment. In order to obtain regulatory approval for incidental food contact it is necessary to determine the quantity of residues on these fruits or vegetables. When the active materials are used in agriculture it is required that residues found are below to the MRL fixed for these substances. In the case of Chlorothalonil this MRL (in Spain) is 0.5 mg/kg for apples (at European level a MRL of 1 mg/kg has been requested). For food contact approval of antisapstains it is therefore required that residue of Chlorothalonil transferred from treated wood is below this limit. Tuff Brite C is an antisapstain formulation of ISK Biosciences containing 450 gr/litre of CTL and 100 gr/litre of Carbendazim. A first migration study was conducted by the University of Gembloux in Belgium on wood treated with 1% Tuff Brite C. No residue was founded on: Apples after 55 days, Cherries after 7 days, Cucumbers after 7 days, Tomatoes after 7 days. This study was limited by the length of time the fruit could be held for observation. Therefore a second migration study was conducted by the University of Montpellier; France.
J F Cooper, D Riboul, M De Vleeschauwer, T L Woods

Development and field trials of Evotek 230, a new antisapstain product
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30140
Laboratory and greenhouse studies, using freshly sawn pine boards, demonstrated that the fungicidal properties of prochloraz and carbendazim were complementary for protection from sapstain and mould under extreme conditions of close stacking and high humidity. Analysis of dip bath solutions before and after dipping 20 boards showed no evidence of any stripping of the active ingredients. Neither fungicide is very active against basidiomycetes that cause decay. Normally, such fungi do not present a significant hazard to freshly sawn timber and they are out-competed by sapstain fungi in the absence of chemical control. Where the prochloraz + carbendazim combination prevented colonisation by sapstain fungi, and where the boards were stored under very humid conditions, some growth of brown rot fungi was observed which could be prevented by tank mixing the anti-sapstain product with borax. Field trials in Europe, S. America and S.E. Asia have confirmed the anti-sapstain efficacy of Evotek 230, a suspoemulsion containing 100 g/l prochloraz and 130 g/l carbendazim, at rates as low as 0.5%.
A Adams, J Oudenweyer, J L Lindars

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tuff Brite C in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3718
Since 1990, the anti-sapstain product Tuff Brite C (ASC 66898) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests, and has been commercially introduced in New Zealand. The product is an aqueous flowable formulation of chlorothalonil and carbendazim. Efficacy tests which have been carried out in New Zealand, Australia, USA, South Africa and Europe are described and summarized. Tuff Brite C is a highly efficacious product against commonly occurring mold and stain fungi causing degradation of freshly sawn lumber.
T L Woods, C J Klaver

Search for an anti-sapstain treatment for fresh radiata pine wood in compliance with European BPD norms: Field Tests
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30673
In response to the impending restrictions on the use of pesticide active ingredients developed to control the staining of fresh wood, as a result of regulation issued in 2009 by the European Union, a project was proposed to test an alternative anti-sapstain treatment that meets both the European restrictions and the performance required for an export-quality radiata pine fresh wood treatment. A set of 16 treatments that included a positive control (commercial treatment), and an untreated control was set and evaluated at three and six months after the application. The treatments tested included formulations of active ingredients and coformulants, and focused on two anchor treatments: one made with a azole based formulation and another that tested cupric hydroxide as base active ingredient. The results of the initial evaluation is that the active ingredients, at the concentration tested, failed to provide protection over time as required; therefore, at a second follow up trial, other active ingredients were tested, in order to resolve the problem. The second stage of the study incorporated the active ingredient DCOIT, who had shown in studies carried in New Zealand, a potentiating effect of the azole based treatments in the control of the stainer complex in time. The third stage of the study tested different sources of the active ingredient DCOIT, and different concentrations of active ingredients and coformulants, in order to determine a cost competitive and performance effective alternative.
P Montes C, T Hanke W