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Bifenthrin, a new insecticide for the control of termites and wood-boring insects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30076
Bifenthrin, a new insecticidal compound Bifenthrin has been extensively tested, to determine its potential use to control termites and other wood destroying insects. Bifenthrin is effective at extreme low rates which can minimize human and environmental exposure to the product. Results of tests carried out by several research institutes and by FMC in different countries will be presented. The physical and chemical properties of bifenthrin, such as chemical stability, compatibility with fungicides, odour, vapour pressure, solubility in solvents, as well as pH-independency are favourable. In addition, several formulations are available for bifenthrin, some of which are tested in these tests. Extensive toxicological, eco-toxicological and product chemistry files have been compiled in accordance within OECD and EPA guidelines. The achieved results confirm that bifenthrin offers potential as a valuable tool for protecting wood against these pests.
G Rustenburg


The case for non-chemical termite barriers in termite control
1989 - IRG/WP 1381
A brief outline of current non-chemical barriers in subterranean termite control and their use in Australia is presented. Recent use of non-chemical barriers in Hawaii has led to their evaluation in termite control here and elsewhere. In Australia, preliminary laboratory and field experiments have shown similar results to those found against Coptotermes formosanus in Hawaii, namely, Australian Coptotermes species do not penetrate intact barriers. Suggestions are offered to standardise laboratory and field evaluations of non-chemical termite barriers, with a discussion on the market potential.
J R J French


Oxine copper (NYTEK® GD) for the control of mould and sapstain on lumber in North America
1989 - IRG/WP 3517
NYTEK® GD is a new, water-based, micro-dispersible formulation of oxine copper registered in the United States and Canada for control of mold and sapstain-causing fungi. NYTEK GD is noncorrosive and of low hazard to applicators and people handling treated lumber, when used according to the label. The product is an effective wood protectant applied as a dip or spray treatment at concentrations of 0.32-0.63% ai (by wt.) on major species of lumber including hem-fir and southern pine. The duration of activity is 4-6 months on artificially inoculated wood incubated in environments that encourage fungal development. Shorter duration control may be observed on Douglas fir. Efficacy is improved by a tank mixture with 2% borate. The unique combination of safety, noncorrosiveness, and efficacy make NYTEK GD a sound alternative to penta-and tetrachlorophenates for wood protection.
D F Myers, J M Fyler, C H Palmer, G D Rosebery


Silafluofen: Novel chemistry and versatility for termite control
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30069
A novel silicon - containing insectizide, HOE 084498 ('Silafluofen'), with a favourable toxicological profile, has shown activity against a broad spectrum of agricultural and environmental health pests. Results from laboratory and field studies around the world have demonstrated that silafluofen is effective at protecting timber from attack by various species of termite and wood-boring beetle. As a termiticide, silafluofen, applied as a dust-toxicant, may suppress/eliminate Coptotermes sp. Ongoing field trials in France, in cooperation with CTBA, indicate that silafluofen, injected directly into masonry, has controlled Reticulitermes santonensis. No signs of termite activity have been observed in the treated part of an infested house since the application was made, 2 years ago.
A J Adams, A Jermannaud, M-M Serment


Evaluation of the effectiveness of defence anti-stain in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1990 - IRG/WP 3593
The anti-sapstain product Defence Anti-stain (DAS) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests during the years 1988 and 1989. Results of tests carried out by institutes and by own companies in countries like Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and Spain will be presented. In the several tests Defence Anti-stain showed a high fungicidal activity to sapstain and mould fungi on wood. The product is a promising alternative to sodium pentachlorophenoxide from biological and other product characteristics point of view.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver


Subterranean termite foraging behaviour and the development of baiting methods used for termite control by the Division of Forest Products
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10058
Given the premise that alternatives to current subterranean termite control measures using organochlorine insecticides and arsenic trioxide have been actively researched by our Division for over ten years, emphasis on baiting methods in controlling these termites has been a major facet of our research. Recently, the new Australian Standard (AS 3660 -1993) was released which outlined the use of physical barriers (Granitgard and Termi-Mesh) as alternatives to soil chemical barriers. However, baiting methods have as yet not been incorporated into the standard. This paper describes the development of baiting techniques in laboratory and field experiments designed over the years to complement, and substitute for, the current soil chemical barrier approach. The goal is to bait or aggregate termites to a point source. In this situation, the termites may be fed bait toxicants that act as slow-acting stomach poisons, or dusted with toxicants that have a similar mode of action. The outcome is to affect colony destruction. Suggestions are offered to indicate the advantages of baiting techniques over soil chemical barriers. Furthermore, such techniques are used to rapidly evaluate potential termiticides and refine future termite control for the pest control industry.
J R J French, J W Creffield, B M Ahmed


FLUROX, a new breakthrough in insect control for wood preservation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30079
FLUROX (flufenoxuron) is an acylurea insecticide which acts as a growth regulator in insects. FLUROX inhibits the production of chitin - the exoskeleton or 'skin' of the insect. When the exposed larva attempt to moult to its next stage of development, it is unable to produce a new skin and dies. FLUROX has been found to be extremely active against wood borers, when applied in a preventive or curative way. FLUROX shows a safe toxicological and ecotoxicological profile. FLUROX is considered to be a new breakthrough insecticide for wood preservation.
A R Valcke, M Pallaske


Effects of chemical pretreatment of Douglas-fir heartwood on efficacy of potential bioprotection agents
1990 - IRG/WP 1440
Biological protection against wood decay fungi represents an environmentally attractive alternative to the use of chemicals; however, the process of identifying suitable candidates and the conditions that ensure successful protection pose major challenges. One critical aspect of this problem is to identify organisms that can rapidly and uniformly colonize the wood. Wood contains low levels of nutrients required for the growth of many potential biocontrol agents, particularly in the heartwood. One approach to enhancing colonization by the bioprotectant is to treat the wood with low levels of chemicals that inhibit other microbes or selectively stimulate the bioprotectant. Ideally, these chemicals would be capable of diffusing in vapor or liquid phase through wood that is impermeable to the movement of conventional preservative systems. The feasibility of this approach was evaluated in a small wood wafer test using fluoride and boron, two elements that have been shown to inhibit members of the Basidiomycotina but produce minimal effects on microfungi.
B Dawson-Andoh, J J Morrell


Chemical analysis of wood waste - The problem of sampling
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20168
A quantitative analysis of the content of active substances in wood is often demanded in quality control after processing and for the proper waste management. As a measure for quality control, analysis has the advantage that the type of preservative is known and assumptions can be made about its distribution in the treated wood.W aste wood may have been treated by a wide range of organic and inorganic preservatives. Therefore, differing methods of analysis have to be used. A correct sampling, however, is a problem due to the very inhomogeneous distribution of preservatives in treated wood influenced by the structure and composition of wood, type and composition of wood preservatives and their application to impregnated wood. the kind of sampling. As a result of literature investigation and own research, an overview over the influencing parameters, structure and composition of wood, type and composition of wood preservatives and their application to impregnated wood. Furthermore, secondary changes due to leaching, evaporation and ageing of active ingredients during service might contribute to an even more uneven distribution. Thus, analytical results can deviate extremely depending on the kind of sampling carried out. The smaller the sample the higher the deviations. Due to this, the applicability of techniques based on small samples, which is characteristic for rapid analysis, is restricted. Multiple data are available on distribution and ist alteration. As a result of a literature survey as well as own research, a summarising overview of the influencing parameters and their effects will be provided. It therefore does not seem practical to implement a general method of sampling. The sampling depends rather on the questions being asked by the investigation and, abover all, on the material under investigation.
A Peylo, R-D Peek


Shorter-term biological control of wood decay in pre-seasoning pine roundwood as an alternative to chemical methods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1555
Previous studies on the long-term control of decay in creosoted transmission poles, using Trichoderma and other antagonistic moulds, have met with limited success. However, it is possible biological control is more suited to control of decay on shorter time scales. An earlier study, focusing on pre-seasoning treatment of transmission poles showed that favourable porosity increases could be brought about by an isolate of Trichoderma. Furthermore, it was evident that considerable improvement could be made in developing antagonistic strains of Trichoderma. A study further investigating the use of antagonistic primary mould fungi as biological control agents is outlined.
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson


Laboratory test of blue stain control by chemicals
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30430
8 chemicals and some mixtures against Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Fusarium verticillioides(Sacc.)Nirenberg, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Trichoderma viride Pers., and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll were conducted in laboratory by inhibition zone in the paper. The results were shown that: CBZ and benomyl as well as copper oxine alone are much high efficacy for inhibiting most of the 5 fungi than other chemicals under the test concentrations; PPZ was found to have almost no fungicidal effect at the specified concentration. The fungicidal effect of some mixtures of CTL, DDAC, Cu-8, Benomyl and were better than alone. CTL increase the inhibiting effect of 0.5% DDAC to the 5 fungi except for Trichoderma viride Pers., and it did not increase the inhibiting effect of copper oxine; 0.01-0.08% copper oxine and 0.01-0.5% DDAC increase the inhibiting effect of benomyl to most of the 5 fungi.
Zhijuan Wang, Zehui Jiang, Mingliang Jiang, Chungen Piao


Chemical Analysis in Production Quality Control at Wood Treatment Plants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20396
Analysis methods for quality control analysis in wood treatment plants have evolved with the changes in treatment preservative chemistries and analytical instrument technology. The basic hydrometer specific gravity measurements used for solution strength and classic wet chemistry methods for wood have given way to instrumental techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, automatic titrator, and HPLC. Not all of methods involve complex instrumentation, simple turbidimeters and handheld refractometers can be used for rapid solution strength testing. These newer methods are discussed in the paper as well as the increased importance of inspection and auditing of the treatment plants production by the chemical suppliers and third party inspection agencies.
P Walcheski, L Jin


Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds (Quat), and/or triazoles (Tebuconazole and/or Propiconazole). The most recent developments have given rise to even more complicated combinations including multiple carbon-based biocides formulated in the form of emulsions or dispersions with or without water repellents or polymers aiming to minimize the use of heavy metals as well as provide improvement in wood dimensional stability and surface weathering performance. Also, long developed non-biocidal wood modification treatments, such as acetylation, thermal modification, furfurylation and hydrocarbon wax/oil treated wood have finally gained more commercial traction in the market place, especially in Europe. These new developments have challenged the industry to develop and use appropriate methods in order to meet the quality control (QC) standards and requirements in respect to concentration of treatment solutions, as well as chemical retention and penetration in treated wood. In the US, the QC system for treated wood product includes three key elements: treating plant internal QC for treating solution, treated wood, and treatment process; QC assistance and monitoring by the chemical/technological suppliers for their customers, and QC inspection by third-party inspection agencies. The enforcement of the QC standards through this comprehensive system is essential to ensure the performance of the treated wood products, the validity of product warranty program, and ultimately for the protection of consumers and the public. This paper overviews the US’s current QC standards and procedures used by treating plants, suppliers and independent inspection agencies. The chemistry challenges with the recent developments of multi-component systems and complex wood protection technologies, and their impacts on quality control methods are also discussed. Case studies have been used to illustrate how some of these challenges can and have been successfully addressed.
L Jin


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb


Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on.
M S Cavalcante


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no loss of activity was detected after 2 h in 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine-HCl. Boiling the enzyme for 5 min in 2.5% SDS + 0.5% b-mercaptoethanol reduced its activity by 65%, as measured by the production of reducing sugars. The activity of a-D-galactosidase, another enzyme detected in large quantities in the decayed wood, was reduced by 98% under these conditions. Optimum pH and temperature ranges were pH 2-6 and 50-60°C, respectively. The enzyme appears to be a glycoprotein containing 50-60% carbohydrate (w/w); the carbohydrate moiety may protect the enzyme from adverse environmental conditions. The control of brown rot by in situ inactivation of xylanase may not be feasible because of the enzyme's extreme stability.
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto


Report and recommendations of the National Termite Workshop held in Melbourne on the 17 April 2002.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10478
There are two parts to this Report. Part One summaries the outcomes of an industry workshop organised to better scope the subterranean termite problem, identify knowledge gaps including R&D gaps and identifying strategies including cost-effective co-ordination mechanisms for addressing the issue. Part Two is a brief review of the current state of knowledge on subterranean termites of economic importance to the wood products industry in Australia.
B M Ahmed, J R J French


Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira


Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


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