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The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or s...
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals - II. Performance against soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30174
Pine sapwood modified with various anhydrides and with butyl isocyanate was tested for its resistance to soft rot decay. Small stakes were exposed for 20 months in unsterile soil in a fungal cellar test. Wood modified with butyl isocyanate performed better than any of the anhydrides tested, with a threshold level of protection (less than 3% weight loss) at 12% weight percent gain (WPG). Stakes ac...
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams


About the water and biological resistance of some new chemically modified wood composites
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40077
As well known, wood represents a valuable natural composite material with a very large utilisation as solid wood or in wood based composite materials. Its qualities but also its defects as the dimensional instability, the susceptibility to biological attack, the anisotropy, are due to its complex structure. Research has demonstrated that the chemical modification of wood, meaning the involving of ...
M C Timar, M D Mihai, G Baciu


Biological degradation resistance of pine wood treated with dimethylol compounds
1989 - IRG/WP 3528
The study reports the increase of dimensional stability and biological degradation resistance of pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L) after impregnation with dimethyloldibydroxyethyleneurea. Decay resistance was determined according to BS 838:961. Nearly complete protection against Coniophora puteana, (Schum.ex Fr. Karst) weight loss of 2-3% was shown when modification, expressed as weight gain, exceede...
C L Videlov


The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM an...
M Rosenqvist


Microscopical analysis of formaldehyde-acid modified wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3182
Cross-linking of wood with gaseous formaldehyde improves its hygroscopic and dimensional behaviour, and its resistance against micro-organisms. However, formaldehyde cross-linking reactions take place only in the presence of an acid catalyst, which results in losses in mechanical By optimization of a formaldehyde-sulfur dioxide vapour phase process the reaction conditions were established to limit...
M Stevens, N Parameswaran


Preliminary results of the treatment of wood with chlorosilanes
1981 - IRG/WP 3172
It is clear from the initial data reported here that the treatment of pine sapwood with chlorosilanes under the reaction conditions employed did not significantly reduce the decay by both white rot and brown rot fungi. Only the dichlorosilane compounds showed to possess some protective action against fungal attack. Before drawing conclusions on the application of organosilicon compounds as potenti...
M Stevens


Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30162
Wood samples treated with anhydrides of various compositions have been examined for their decay resistance and moisture behaviour. For this purpose two brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum) and two white rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus) were used in conventional and modified soil block tests. The modified soil block tests conformed to the method as ...
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams


The biological effectiveness of wood modified with heptadecenylsuccinic anhydride against two brown rot fungi: Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3705
A modified soil block test was carried out using wood samples reacted with heptadecenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). This modification gave good resistance to decay brought about by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum during the twelve week exposure period. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between increased loading of modifying reagent and an increase in ...
C Codd, W B Banks, J A Cornfield, G R Williams


The Effect on Biological and Moisture Resistance of Epichlorohydrin Chemically Modified Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40224
Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks or extracted for 2 hours ...
R E Ibach, B-G Lee


Dimensional stability and decay resistance of wood upon modification with some new type chemical reactants
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40028
Solid wood of home grown species can be upgraded by chemical modification with environmentally acceptable chemicals. The best kwown example of modification reaction is acetylation with acetic anhydride. A continued search for reactive chemicals other than acetic anhydride is ongoing, aiming at the improvement of technical properties of wood. This contribution deals with the results of a screening ...
P Goethals, M Stevens


Assessing the bioresistance conferred to solid wood by chemical modification
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40099
The chemical modification of wood using straight chain alkyl anhydrides can considerably enhance its durability. This paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of these modifiers in improving the biological resistance of a susceptible softwood when exposed to four different basidiomycete fungi, soft rots and the larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). It was clear that so...
E D Suttie, C A S Hill, D Jones, R J Orsler


The kinetics of anhydride modification reactions of wood. Experimental results and theoretical modelling
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40125
Although the chemical modification of wood remains a fertile area for research, there has been little work performed on the kinetics of the modification process. The reaction kinetics of a series of linear chain and cyclic anhydrides has been studied and activation energies of the reaction determined. The reaction kinetic profiles are determined by the relative rates of reaction of the reagent wit...
C A S Hill, J G Hillier


Modification of solid wood: research and practical potential
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40098
The polymeric structure of the wooden cellwall mainly consists cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The most reactive sites on these components are the hydroxyl groups. The cellwall polymers (and its reactive hydroxyl groups) are responsible for most physical and chemical properties of wood. By changing the basic chemistry of the cellwall polymers, it is possible to change different undesirable at...
H Militz, E P J Beckers, W J Homan


Biological degradation resistance of wood acetylated with thioacetic acid
1983 - IRG/WP 3223
Chemically, modification of wood is being considered as an alternative to conventional preservation by toxic chemicals. Acetylated wood has been reported to be quite resistant to most biodegrading organisms at weight percent gains (WPG) around 15-19. The conventional acetylation techniques with acethic anhyrdride result in generation of acetic acid. However, acetylation with thioacetic acid overco...
S Kumar, S C Agarwal


Screening of the technical performance and aquatic toxicity of N-methylolacrylamide treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40166
In the course of the last decades chemical modification of wood species, with a limited natural durability, has been subjected to intensive research. As a possible alternative and supplementary treatment of non-durable wood in a range of applications it remains one of the major topics in the wood preservation world. Different modification systems have been scaled-up and are now in an industrialisi...
V Rijckaert, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, M Stevens


Effect of fungal degradation on the chemical composition of acetylated beech wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40267
This study investigated the impact of fungal attack on the chemical composition of acetylated wood. Beech wood acetylated to different degrees was exposed to decay by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation conditions. Laboratory soil-bed assays were also conducted to study the degradation of acetylated wood by soft rot fungi and other soil-inhabiting microorganisms...
H Militz, Dong-won Son, L Gómez-Hernández, R Sierra-Alvarez


Chemical modification of Scots Pine Sawdust by mixed anhydrides
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40439
By making react mixtures containing acetic-fatty anhydrides on Scots pine sawdust (SPS) without any solvent or catalyst; we synthesized mixed acetic-fatty esters of SPS. Such mixtures were synthesized by reaction between a carboxylic acid and acetic anhydride. These mixtures were obtained after reaction of acetic anhydride and a fatty acid that yields at equilibrium a mixture of five compounds: ac...
J Peydecastaing, E Borredon, S El Kasmi


Effect of different ASAs (alkenyl succinic anhydrides) on the treatment of biological protection of wood in use class 4
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40440
The alkenyl suscinic anhydrides (ASAs) used in this work are adducts resulting from the maleinization reaction of fatty acid alkyl esters. Various products with different alkyl groups were synthesized from rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil esters, rich in oleic acid. The liquids obtained showed a viscosity similar to that of vegetable oils and a brown color. When applied into wood, a thermal treatment...
C Vaca-Garcia, O Pignolet


Modification of Wood by a Water-Repellent Compound Used in the Textile Industry: Boron Release and Termite Resistance
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40447
In the study, wood specimens were treated with disodium octoborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and a commercial water and oil repellent compound, FORGUARD M®, a weak cationic emulsion containing dipropylene glycol monomethylether, water and solids in its formulation and used in the textile industry. There were two different processes for preservative treatments: double and single treatments. The leaching ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Erilkun, Y Imamura


Multilayer hot-press drying and chemical modifying of poplar wood with urea-formaldehyde prepolymer
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40539
The objective of this study was to determine the technology of chemical modifying and multilayer hot-press drying on poplar wood. The chemicals were impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine to improve the dimension stability and mechanical property of timber. The timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying to increase the density of timber. Results indica...
Guofeng Wu, Yifei Jiang, Sheng Yao, Junwen


Study of UV resistance and natural weathering of coatings on chemically modified wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40629
In this study, UV resistance and weathering performance of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) modified with benzoyl chloride and acetic anhydride was studied. Performance of polyurethane based wood coatings on modified wood was also evaluated. Unmodified and chemically modified specimens were exposed to accelerated and natural weathering. Modified and unmodified woo...
K K Pandey, K Srinivas


Characterization of wood modification prepared by in situ polymerization with pre-polymer and the mechanism of modification
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40633
Chemical modification of wood is a potential way to obtain high quality wood. In this study, the fast-growing poplar was impregnated with modifier using a pulse-dipping machine by in situ polymerization. Fungal decay analysis, mechanical properties and dimension stability of the natural and modified woods were investigated. The wood samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Therma...
Qian Lang, Zeng Bi, Junwen Pu


Optimising wood chemical modification with lactic acid oligomers by screening of processing conditions and chemical additives
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40741
Oligomer systems based on lactic acid (OLA), were impregnated in wood and polymerised in-situ by heat treatment to improve the properties of the treated wood especially regarding anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), hygroscopicity, water leaching resistance and durability. This article relates the optimisation of the heat treatment conditions and the consideration of selected chemicals for improvement ...
C Grosse, M-F Thévenon, M Noël, P Gérardin


Chemical, physical-mechanical characterization and durability of thermally modified beech and ash wood by thermo-vacuum process (Termovuoto)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40758
The paper illustrates part of the results from the CIP Eco-innovation project “Thermo-vacuum: new process for new generation of thermally modified wood”. The project is part of the 7th Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development, and thermo-vacuum modified wood is already on the European market. The project was selected by the European Commission, EASME Agency, as "...
M Jebrane, I Cuccui, O Allegretti, N Terziev


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