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How predictive are laboratory experiments for assessing the effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) on field colonies of terrnites? - A comparison of laboratory and field data from Australian mound-building species of termit
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10143
A singular advantage of using mound building species of termite is their directly accessible nest. This allows evaluation of control methods by accurate assessment of the effects at the colony level. The mound building species Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) were used to test the CSI, hexaflumuron, in laboratory and field trials. Laboratory results showed tha...
M Lenz, P V Gleeson, L R Miller, H M Abbey


Laboratory evaluation comparing three commercial termite baits based on chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSIs) against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10625
This laboratory bioassay report describes laboratory evaluation undertaken to compare the efficacy, and palatability of Requiem®, Nemesis® and Sentricon® AG as candidate bait toxicants against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt. The laboratory bioassay results confirmed palatability and efficacy differences between the three comm...
B Ahmed


Effects of a chitin synthesis inhibitor on spore germination of the decay fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria tenuis
1986 - IRG/WP 2253
This study sought to determine the effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor - Polyoxin D, on spore germination and early hyphal development of a brown rot and a white rot fungus in-vitro. Polyoxin D is a competitive, substrate-analogue type of chitin synthtase inhibitor (2). The drawbacks to use of such a compound as a wood preservative tie. cost - $20,000/g, possible leaching or degradation) might ...
E L Schmidt


Evaluating the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20267
The Exterraä Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex Inc., Fayetteville, NC) was evaluated in a field experiment near Townsville, Australia. Cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% weight/weight (w/w) or 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron (Requiemä) was tested for its efficacy in eradicating colonies of the mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Thirte...
B C Peters, S Broadbent


Intrigue Dust - A new method of eradicating subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10396
Arsenic trioxide is used by pest controllers in Australia to eradicate subterranean termite colonies. In 2000 Bayer Australia introduced Intrigue Termite Dust as a more environmentally acceptable alternative. Intrigue, containing 80% triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, disrupts the moulting process in termites. Dusted termites return to the nest and pass around triflumuron via mutual groomi...
W Madden


Insect growth regulators: modes of action and mode of action-dependent peculiarities in the evaluation of the efficacy for their use in wood preservation
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30155
Up to now, the insecticides used in wood preservation are either of more or less non-specific mode of action - like boron - or of neurotoxic mode of action - like chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbamates and pyrethroids. The active ingredients actually used are primarily mirroring the progress in active ingredient research in plant protection. The methods of testing of the insecticidal efficacy of woo...
M Pallaske


Efficacy of triflumuron dust against Schedorhinotermes intermedius (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30226
Insecticidal dusts have been used against termites for decades, with arsenic dust being the standard in Australia. While fair success over the years has been achieved against genera such as Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, Schedorhinotermes has been much more difficult to control. This genus has nests which are very difficult to locate and thus it is problematic to determine whether a treatment has b...
W Madden, P Hadlington, M Hill


Laboratory Evaluation of Flurox, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, as a Bait Toxicant Against Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri ) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30477
Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest, Iran . One sustainable control strategy that usually help in reducing the subterranean termite damage in buildings , which is safe to the user and the environment is the use of IGRs in a suitable bait matrix. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox (a Chitin...
B Habibpour


The potential of 2-deoxy-D-glucose as an active ingredient in wood preservation
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30205
2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) is a potential active ingredient against wood decaying fungi. When dissolved in water, it can be used in pressure treatment of wood. Thereby the wood is protected from attack by wood decaying fungi. A concentration of 1.5% (mean retention 9.7 kg/cubic meter sap-wood) is adequate for brown rot fungi, and 3% (mean retention 19.5 kg/cubic meter sapwood) will also provide protection against white rot fungi. 2-DOG is easily soluble in water, and is therefore easily leached from the wood upon completion of the preservation process. Different types of fixa-tion methods have been tried and evaluated. It is possible to produce 2-DOG by the hydrolysis of chitin, a constituent of the exterior skeleton of shellfish and insects. There is a potential for exploita-tion of this waste product provided by the crab and shrimp industry. The yield of 1 kg of fresh shrimp is 75 g of 2-DOG.
O V Frederiksen, A P Koch


Termiticidal chemicals derived from tropical tree resins
1991 - IRG/WP 1477
To test the hypothesis that defensive chemicals protect tropical primary forest trees against biological attack, a bioassay and fractionation program was conducted in Indonesia. Fresh dipterocarp resins were fed in no-choice tests to Neotermes dalbergiae termites on 4.5 cm filter papers, or tested for inhibition of fungal growth. Fractionation of biologically active resins via flash column chromat...
A Messer, K McCormick, D Richardson, Sunjaya, H Hagedorn, J Meinwald


N-tritylmorpholine as a potential marine wood protectant against teredinids and pholads - A preliminary evaluation
1983 - IRG/WP 497
The molluscicide, N-tritylmorpholine, is effective in eradicating certain fresh water snails, the intermediate hosts in the transmission of schistosomiasis in man. This preliminary study shows that N-tritylmorpholine is also active against wood-boring marine mollusks. Fine sapwood impregnated with this morpholino compound was not damaged by teredinids or pholads while exposed at two marine sites i...
J D Bultman, K K Parrish


Remediation of CCA-treated wood by chitin and chitosan
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50229
Chitin and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which are interest of to research concerning the sorption of metal ions since the amine and hydroxyl groups on their chemical structures act as chelation sites for metal ions. This study evaluated the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood via biosorption by chitin and chitosan. Expo...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Hemicellulosic induction of oxalic acid in Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10060
Most studies suggest that enzymes produced by brown-rot fungi are too large to penetrate sound wood structures, even after decay begins. Thus, nonenzymatic agents have been proposed to initiate brown-rot decay. We have reported that the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-698 initiates a 2-fold decrease in wood pH within 7 days of colonization which is mediated by production of oxalic acid. Strai...
F Green III, M Larsen, T L Highley


Effect of Volatiles from Trichoderma species on the regulation of protein synthesis in Serpula lacrymans isolates
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10440
The growth of wood decay fungi has previously been shown to be inhibited by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Trichoderma isolates. No mechanism of action has however been established for such inhibition. This paper reports the effects of VOCs produced by Trichoderma pseudokoningii, T. viride and T. aureoviride on the growth of four dry rot isolates and corresponding protein synthesi...
S Humphris, R Wheatley, E Buultjens, A Bruce


Preliminary studies of the performance of iron chelators as inhibitors of brown rot (Coniophora puteana) attack
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10185
This paper describes experiments to examine the proposal that the presence of iron is essential for brown rot fungi to utilize hydroxyl radicals remote from the hyphae as a means of converting the wood into a food source. reliminary test results are presented from trials using three different iron chelators impregnated into Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood blocks. Their relative effects on th...
E D Suttie, R J Orsler, P M Wood


Inhibitory effects of leachates from Scots pine wood on germination of some wood rotting fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1282
Leachates from sapwood of Pinus sylvestris inhibited or reduced the germination of basidiospores of the wood decay fungi tested. The fungi were selected among those preferentially colonizing hardwood or softwood, representatives for brown rot and white rot fungi, early basidiomycete colonizers and late basidiomycete colonizers in above-ground parts of pine as well as fungi found in high frequencie...
J Bjurman


The importance of blue stain attack for the colonization by wood-rotting fungi of wood not in contact with the ground
1988 - IRG/WP 1349
When used in constructions not in contact with the ground, wood has been shown often to proceed from blue stain to moulds. The appearance of wood rotting fungi is normally delayed. Solid wood artificially inoculated with the blue stain fungus Pullularia pullulans was shown to permit germination of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus basidiospores. This was demonstrated by the use of an indirect and a direct b...
J Bjurman


Partial characterization of inhibitors extracted from pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood active against germination of wood rotting fungi
1988 - IRG/WP 1351
Germination inhibitors in pine sapwood could be extracted and separated with the aid of solvent partitioning and chromatography on silicic acid. The inhibitory action was tested by three different bioassays. Active fractions have been characterized by TLC and HPLC. Inhibitory activity could be correlated with phenolic compounds. The minimum active concentration of inhibitors have been determined....
J Bjurman


Chitin synthetase activity in cellular fractions of wood-decay fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1524
This study was an attempt to explain the variability of in vivo sensitivity of wood decay fungi to the chitin synthetase (CS) inhibitor, polyoxin, by comparing CS distribution in cellular fractions. The five species studied were the brown-rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Fibuloporia vaillantii, and the white-rot fungi Schizophyllum commune and Ganoderma applanatum. The CS activi...
B R Johnson, S C Croan, B Illman


Synthesis of boric acid ammonium oleate salt for wood preservation: Leachability and termite resistance test
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30435
A new chemical compound coupling boric acid and oleic acid through a joint of ammonium salt has been produced and its synthesis followed and validated by Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR). This compound named ammonium borate oleate (BAO) combining biocidal properties of boron and water repellence of fatty acids has then been studied as a wood preservative. Synthesis of BAO involved different...
F Lyon, A Pizzi, Y Imamura, M F Thevenon, S N Kartal, J Gril


The effect of brighteners on wood surface aesthetics – exploring the use of various organo-phosphonates based precursors
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30441
Freshly cut hardwood lumber such as white oak, red oak, beech, or redwood are rich in mineral stain (mostly iron and calcium), which provides a strong discoloration of the wood surface significantly influencing the aesthetic of the wood surface and strongly affecting the cost of this lumber. The influence of mineral stain on soft wood discoloration (Southern Yellow Pine, Douglas fir, etc.) is les...
R Craciun, P Mitchell


Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20402
There is a need to establish new objective and sensitive methods for early detection and quantification of decay fungi in wood materials. Molecular methods have proven to be a useful tool within wood protection issues, however, this field is still poorly explored and so far relatively few have used these methods within the field of wood deterioration. Among the techniques used in the indirect quan...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, I Børja, C Björdal


Synthesis of a rosin amide and its resistance to wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30517
Rosin was reacted with diethyltriamine (DETA) after being modified by acryl acid with the weight ratio of 4.5:1 and a rosin amide (RA) derivative was produced at the conditions as follows: modified rosin and DETA mole ratio of 1:3.5, dimethylbenzene as water carrying agent, reaction temperature of 160-180°C, and reaction time of 8h. The chemical structure of the product as RA was identified by F...
Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Jing Wang


Synthesis of novelty borate compounds for wood preservatives: Laboratory test of leachability and decay resistance
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30520
A novel series of ammonium tetraphenylborate (ATB) and borate chemical compounds (BBC) were synthesized as wood preservatives. The leaching rates and decay resistance of boron formulations containing ATB and BBC were conducted. The laboratory leaching results showed that boron leaching rate of treated wood by ATB formulations was from 2.1% - 6.7%, while that of BBC formulations from 23.3% -59.0%. ...
Zhiqiang Li, Mingliang Jiang, Xingxia Ma


Design, synthesis, characterisation and effectiveness of ‘Locked-in-Boron’ chemicals for H3.2 level of wood protection
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30577
Boratrane molecules with five-membered and six-membered molecular ring systems, and with various ring substituents were synthesised, characterised and formulated for wood treatment for accelerated laboratory bioassays using wood decay fungi as test organisms. Six-membered ring boratranes showed lower efficacy in laboratory assays than five-membered ring boratranes. One alkyl-substituted boratran...
R Franich, H Kroese, S Gallagher, S Hill, B Kelly, G Billett, R Meder, W Rae


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