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Substrate preferences in adult Pselactus spadix (Herbst)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10352
Adult preferences of P. spadix were tested in a series of olfactory and tactile choice tests. Tests employed pine and beech wood blocks, which were undecayed or decayed by soft rot fungi, wetted with seawater or freshwater and drilled or undrilled. Survival of individual adults on undecayed pine and beech in a non-choice test was determined. Olfactory cues were found not to be an important factor in substrate selection. Adults were shown be negative phototactic, which is likely to be related to locating checks in wood from where colonisation can start. In the tactile tests adults clearly preferred wetted wood, although the water source was not important. Conditioned pine blocks were preferred over beech, with exception of seawater wetted wood on which no such a preference was found. The survival on pine was significantly higher than on beech, the water source had no influence on survival. It is thought that the water source relates to larval preferences or survival rather than that of adults. The fact that P. spadix is found along coastlines rather than rivers, is probably related to the effect of water type on larvae. P. spadix did not show a clear preference for marine when given the choice between two marine and one terrestrial soft rot fungus. Factors other than the fungal salinity tolerance are likely to influence preferences in P. spadix. The non-choice tests used undecayed wood blocks and showed significantly higher survival on pine as compared to adults without a substrate, indicating that fungal presence is not a prerequisite for colonisation by adults.
P Oevering, A J Pitman

CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
G Castan

Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) to Cellulose Insulation Treated with Boric Acid in Choice and No-Choice Tests.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10532
The tunneling ability of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki through a cellulose insulation material containing11.1% boric acid was tested in choice and no-choice bioassays. We examined tunneling behavior and mortality of termites exposed to treated and untreated insulation material in miniature simulated wall voids. In a choice test termites tunneled through untreated insulation in all but one of the replicates used. Termites were unable to fully penetrate any of the replicates containing treated insulation and experienced a significantly higher mortality (78.4 ± 18.4%) than termites exposed to untreated insulation (11.6 ± 5.6%, F = 60.4, df = 1, P < 0.0001). In a no- choice test termites fully penetrated all replicates containing untreated insulation and experienced 37.1 ± 37.2% mortality. Termites exposed to treated insulation in this test experienced a significantly higher mortality of 100.0% (F = 14.3, df = 1, P < 0.005), and did not fully penetrate the treated insulation.
M E Mankowski, J K Grace

Results on termite resistance of building materials against Coptotermes formosanus by choice test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10275
Various building materials, included wood species, wooden board materials, thermal insulation materials and fire-protection materials, were tested for grading of termite resistance against Coptotermes formosanus. The dimension of most specimens were 2x2x2cm3. Ten repeats were prepared. The specimens were put between Akamatsu sapwood control specimens on a laboratory cultured mound colony of termite, Coptotermes formosanus. After 1 month of attack to termite, the specimens were removed from the mound colony and cleaned up. Then these final mass were weighed. The grading of termite resistance was initially estimated by mass loss of specimens. This grading was corrected by visual observation. Japanese 3 domestic species, cypress pine, Alaska- ceder, kapur and mahogany were indicated rather high termite resistance. In the case of Siberian red pine and Gmelina, the valued of termite resistance were shown variable. Tropical species plywood, inorganic board and radiata pine MDF, were shown rather high termite resistance. Other board materials were shown rather less termite resistance. Most of commercial soft wood plywood and OSB were very sensible against termite. Most common thermal insulation materials in Japan were estimated very sensitive against termite. In the case of fire protection materials, expanded concrete was rather good against termite but plaster board was very sensible against termite.
K Suzuki, K Hagio

Termite resistance classification of some tropical and temperate species based on the laboratory choice test results against formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanu
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20291
The results of classification of termite durability were varied. We carried out laboratory evaluation of the classification of termite durability on various species by the choice test against formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus. We classified five grades (very sensitive to very resistant). According to our results, azobe, ipe, keruing, intsia, kapur, yellow meranti, jarraah, malas, cypress pine, alaska-cedar, hinoki and hiba, were indicated rather high termite resistance and four species, siberian red pine, teak, terminalia and gmelina, were shown very variable termite durability.
K Suzuki

Termite likes steamed larch wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10113
Steamed wood of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord.) was preferably attacked by termites. Steam treatments have often been applied to Japanese larch wood for improving its penetrability or color. For preventing termite attack on steamed timber, we have to elucidate why termite likes it. Choice tests with Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were conducted using larch boards steamed for 30-240 min at 160-170°C. Weight losses due to termite attack were very small in non-steamed boards while they were very large in steamed boards. Steamed samples extracted with hot water were not attacked by termite. This means that increased palatability to steamed samples was affected by some components of hot water extracts which were possibly produced by steam treatments. Forced tests were also carried out by exposing the steamed wood samples to Coptotermes formosanus in an acrylic cylinder with plaster bottom. The overall results suggested that steam treatments degraded and/or removed some larch wood constituents which suppress termite attack.
S Doi, M Kubota, M Takahashi, T Yoshimura, A Adachi

Effectiveness of sol-gel treatments coupled with copper and boron against subterranean termites
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30493
Wood modification by sol-gel treatments shows many positive features, like antimicrobial properties. Wood was also successfully modified with alkoxysilanes enhancing its resistance against soil micro-organisms. Silver, copper, zinc compounds, boric acid or organic biocides such as alkylammonium compounds may be added to the sol-gel to enhance its biocidal properties. Nevertheless, if some of these active ingredients and compounds are not fixed into wood by chemical reactions, they can be easily leached out by water. To overcome this limitation, a system based on silica sol-gel material starting from alkoxysilanes has been functionalized with organic groups having copper linking function. Sol-gel was also coupled with boric acid. As preliminary tests against the brown rot agent Coniophora puteana (Schumacher ex Fries) gave good results, the sol-gel formulations were also tested for their efficacy against subterranean termites. A no-choice test was set up, in two different time scales. Results show that though the sol-gel treatments act in very different ways, all of them are efficacy against subterranean termites. The total mortality occurred in the longer test suggested that active ingredients may be added in lower quantity.
E Feci, L Nunes, S Palanti, S Duarte, G Predieri, F Vignali

NHA Choice test: Feeding dilemma for Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10746
An AWPA laboratory choice test was performed with Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) to determine the role of feeding stimulation or aggregation by N’N napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA). Pine blocks were vacuum treated with aqueous concentrations of NHA ranging from 250-10,000ppm and exposed to one gram R. flavipes workers in the dual block choice test which included one treated and one untreated block per modified AWPA laboratory test (E1-97) jar. At the end of four weeks, all test blocks were removed and replaced by either filter paper or untreated pine or aspen to observe long-term mortality/survival. Removed blocks were evaluated for mass loss and statisitical evaluation. Mass loss was consistently greater in the untreated-pair blocks and ranged from 18-35%. Weight loss in the NHA-treated blocks was highest at low concentrations (18%) and decreased to < 5% at 10,000ppm. Termite mortality at the end of four weeks was observed nearly zero, however, over the next 12 weeks worker mortality reached 100% in certain groups. Filter paper or control pine was supplemented after the 4 week test period. We hypothesize that exposure to untreated pine during exposure to the NHA blocks delayed the 100% mortality previously observed in similar no-choice test using similar NHA concentrations of NHA, possibly by reduction below toxic levels. Modest accelerated feeding (stimulation) of the control blocks was observed only in the 2600ppm group. Overall, NHA treatment in pine behaves like a typical repellent wood preservative: as the concentration of preservative increases, feeding and mass loss decreases, however addition of an untreated pine block abrogates the high toxicity of NHA to R. flavipes (100%) as previously seen in several no-choice tests.
F Green III, S N Kartal, P K Lebow, R A Arango

Laboratory and Field evaluation on Natural Resistance and Feeding Preference of Different Wood Species to Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) in Pakistan
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10769
The resistance of twenty four different woods to attack and damage by subterranean termite species Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) was evaluated by choice and no choic in laboratory and field trials. Mean wood mass loss was calculated for both laboratory and field trials results using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Mean percentage termite mortality was calculated for laboratory trials only. Results revealed that mean percentage mortality and feeding varied with different wood species. The loss in weight served as a measure of termite attack. Each wooden block was also graded by the amount of termite damage using American Wood Preservation Association (AWPA) scale 1997. Two weeks of no choice laboratory trials against H. indicola and C. heimi for all types of wooden blocks oven dried at 100°C) were used in setting the feeding preference for each species to arrange the 24 woods in descending order. Impact of temperature exhibited as directly proportional to the increased wood consumption. Choice feeding tests in laboratory and field for both test termite species exposed that both species Populus deltoides was most preferred and Dalbergia sissoo was the least preferred wood. Smilarly, same wood preference was observed for no choice field test against H. indicola. The no choice field test against C. heimi result indicated D. sissoo was least palatable and Mangifera indica was most palatable wood.
S A Malik; F Manzoor, B M Ahmed (Shiday)

Termite and insect resistance of acetylated wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40703
The benefits from acetylation of wood to enhance resistance against fungal decay and dimensional stability have been known for many years. Since 2007 Accsys Technologies has been commercially producing Accoya® wood that is based on acetylation of radiata pine. A number of studies on the resistance of acetylated wood to attack by wood destroying termites have been conducted, but there is no common understanding of why termite attack on highly acetylated wood is limited. Additional work has been carried out to investigate the termite and insect resistance of Accoya radiata pine. A choice-test and a no-choice-test (force feeding) with Reticulitermes flavipes has been done according to a modified EN 117 and EN 118. In addition the results of a force feeding test with longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) larvae in accordance with EN 46 are presented in this paper. The results are compared with previous studies and discussion is initiated on “mode of action”.
F Bongers, M Kutnik, I Paulmier, J Alexander, H Militz

CEN Draft Standard (38 N 460F): Méthode d'essai pour determiner l'efficacité d'un produit de préservation du bois en milieu marin
1986 - IRG/WP 4132 F
G Castan

A selective-choice laboratory bioassay technique with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1176
This paper presents a laboratory bioassay technique for simultaneous exposure of a variety of specimens to the same termite biomass. Details of the technique are given in a small scale selective-choice assessment with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) in which timber species susceptibility is compared together with the efficacy of sub-lethal concentrations of protective compounds.
C D Howick, J W Creffield, P R Burridge

Creosote – Preservative of Choice by American Railroads
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30658
The combination of wood treated with creosote has for well over 100 years been the very foundation on which the American railroads have been established. This paper will describe the use of a renewable resource – wood – and its treatment with creosote, the undeniable performance of the product’s service life, including weather-ability of creosote treated wood railroad crossties.
D A Webb

Variance in feeding on equivalent wood blocks by the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki)
1987 - IRG/WP 1325
We tested whether laboratory groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki forage randomly when they are given 4 equivalent wood blocks, and whether group size affects variance of feeding on equivalent blocks. In all cases, foraging was not random, but, rather, the termites concentrated on a few preferred blocks. Group size did not affect this pattern of non-randomness. These data are useful for designing choice tests, and recommended sample sizes for a simulated experiment are given.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane

The difficult choice of the preservation industry when changing to more environmentally acceptable products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50156
Until recent years the preservation industry in Norway had no problems with the environmental authorities. However, during the last three years the pressure has increased, and the authorities&apos; solution to restrict hazardous chemicals is to introduce green (environmental) taxes for the products containing these chemicals, and also for the pressure-treated wood. The preservation industry accepts the change in preservatives to more environmental friendly types, but wants to introduce a restriction as they have done in Finland and Sweden. At this stage in the process the industry feels they have to choose between plague and cholera.
F G Evans

KERUING and APITONG: A Timely Review of the Perfect Choice Wood Species for Crossarms and Brace Arms, Including Data on Copper Naphthenate Treatments
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40603
Apitong or the wood species more commonly known as Keruing is an important tropical hardwood known for its high strength to weight ratio and its reasonable durability and preservative treatability. This wood has been exported from managed permanent forest estates in Malaysia into the United States for over 4 decades for its widespread use in wooden utility industry brace arms and crossarms, yet currently it is not listed as an approved species by either ANSI or ASTM. Because it has not had any significant failures in its use patterns now for almost four decades, members of the AWPA Utility Users Task Group have asked for a comprehensive and Critical review of the species and its durability or treatability properties, since they have been using it and specifying it in their systems under product acception for years. This paper is meant to be a comprehensive review of both public domain data and privately sponsored studies to yield additional product information, for those using, specifying and treating this tropical, sustainable species from Malaysia.
A Wong, M Freeman

Programme section 2, Test methodology and assessment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20126
IRG Secretariat

Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse

A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling

Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse

Collaborative soft rot tests. Names and addresses of collaborators
1973 - IRG/WP 231
IRG Secretariat

A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
N Vidovic

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley

Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage

A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield

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