Your search resulted in 45 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Comparing microbial colonisation and Decay Rates of Wood from Sound and Aphid-Killed Kenyan-Grown Mexican Cypress (Cupressus lusitanica)
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10599
Samples of wood from 10, 15, and 30-year old trees attacked and killed by the cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi) and sound Kenyan-grown Cupressus lusitanica trees were investigated for variations in moisture content, density and susceptibility to microbial decay. MC varied with tree age, a normal trend, and between samples from aphid-killed and sound trees. In samples from 10, 15 and 20-year old so...
Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20402
There is a need to establish new objective and sensitive methods for early detection and quantification of decay fungi in wood materials. Molecular methods have proven to be a useful tool within wood protection issues, however, this field is still poorly explored and so far relatively few have used these methods within the field of wood deterioration. Among the techniques used in the indirect quan...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, I Børja, C Björdal
Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar
Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr
Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine attacked by Fomitopsis pinicola
1983 - IRG/WP 1183
Small blocks of ponderosa pine chemically modified by butylene oxide to three different weight percent gains (WPG) were decayed for 2 months with the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Wood substance loss and the type of decay pattern recognised were fairly similar both for control and blocks treated to 8 and 15 WPG. No difference in attack was observed between radial or tangential walls in lat...
T Nilsson, R M Rowell
Étude in vitro de la colonisation et de la dégradation structural du bois de hêtre par Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quélet
1976 - IRG/WP 158
L'attaque du bois de Hêtre par Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quélet, agent de pourriture fibreuse blanche est étudiée après des périodes d'exposition à ce champignon variant de 15 jours à trois mois. L'observation des premiers stades, c'est à dire de la colonisation du bois par les filaments de champignon est faite en microscopie optique, puis au fur et à m...
Patterns of long-term performance - How well are they predicted from accelerated tests and should evaluations consider parameters other than averages?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20130
This paper is a discussion of whether different service-life distribution patterns of products treated with unlike preservatives can be predicted, modeled, characterized, or even anticipated from accelerated laboratory tests. Graphic displays of data from Forest Products Laboratory field plots with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated stakes demonstrate the importance of local environme...
R C De Groot, J W Evans
The resistance of wood coated with different solvent-borne paints against colonisation by decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40468
This paper examines different solvent-borne paints characteristics and their decay resistance when applied on pine wood surface. It was determined by the standard ENV 839 procedure. The part of samples were subjected to accelerated ageing according to the EN 84 standard. The discussed commercial paint systems were typical stains or penetrating oil-based products, with or without biocides....
B Mazela, P Hochmańska
Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine after exposure in unsterile soil
1982 - IRG/WP 3211
Small blocks of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) chemically modified with butylene oxide to three different weight gains were exposed for 6 weeks in unsterile soil. Severe surface decay caused by soft rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria was observed in blocks with 8 weight percent gain. The soft rot attack was restricted to the outer parts of the radial walls in the latewood tracheids. Bacteria...
T Nilsson, R M Rowell
Effect of wood moisture on ability of Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise Pinus radiata
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10311
The factors influencing colonisation of unseasoned radiata pine logs by sapstaining fungi which can result in detrimental wood discolouration, are being explored. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of wood moisture content on fungal growth and wood colouration (melanisation). Five replicate trials were set up using increment cores (10mm diameter) which were taken from ...
B Kreber, D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter
Patterns of bacterial attack in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1984 - IRG/WP 1223
Patterns of bacterial decay have been examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Two morphologically distinct patterns have been recognised in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Bacterial Decay I (BDI) involves the removal of the secondary wall layers initiating with erosion of the S3 layer from the cell lumen. As decay progresses the S2 layer and S1 layer are degr...
G A Willoughby, L E Leightley
Initial microbial colonisation of CCA-treated, creosote-treated and untreated Pinus sylvestris L. blocks in seawater
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10171
CCA-treated, creosote-treated and untreated Pinus sylvestris sample blocks were immersed in a seawater through-flow system for periods of between 1 and 265 hours. Samples were fixed immediately on removal and examined both qualitatively and quantitatively using the scanning electron microscope. This study of primary microbial colonisation showed differences between treatments in the diversity of m...
K Sturgess, A J Pitman
Reaction of osmium tetroxide with a diphenolic compound as a model substance for demethylated lignin
1986 - IRG/WP 1303
By using caffeic acid as a model substance for diphenolic moieties of demethylated lignin it was found that electron dense particles called by the authors "osmiophilic particles" in former papers are reaction products of OsO4 with the model substance. By these products it is possible to indicate the enzymatic demethylation of lignin taking place during wood decay. The appearance of the electron de...
K Messner, E Srebotnik
A new method for the study of microbiological decay of wood in a strictly anaerobic environment
1988 - IRG/WP 2319
Recent work has suggested that strictly anaerobic bacteria may play a role in the biodeterioration of wood, particularly in aqueous environments. However, no suitable test methods exist for the investigation of this hypothesis. An aqueous minimal medium in specifically adapted conical flasks was sterilised, gassed using a 5.5% H2; 31.8% C02; 62.7% N2 gas mixture to remove oxygen and transferred to...
G M Rogers, A A W Baecker
Étude in vitro de la colonisation et de la dégradation structurale du bois d'aubier de Pin sylvestre par la Mérule: Serpula lacrymans Schum. ex Fr. S. F. Gray
1979 - IRG/WP 198
The degradation of Scots pine sapwood cell walls by Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot fungus, is observed after various periods of exposure from two weeks to twelve weeks. The observation by microscopy shows that the hyphae of Serpula rapidly invade the wood tissues as cell wall degradation starts. That deterioration is not gradual, it is observed to be very irregular as well within the whole of the ...
L-joint trials: Part 2: The relationship between colonisation by decay fungi and long-term performance
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20251
Many of the L-joint trials conducted at BRE were assessed during the early stages to establish the rate of colonisation by fungi, principally basidiomycetes. At that time, a system of assessment incorporating colonisation studies was proposed for inclusion within the European Standard EN 330 but was rejected for the final version of the standard. The long-term trials associated with the colonisa...
J K Carey
L-joint trials: Part 1: Observations on the process of colonisation and decay
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20250
The first trials using the small L-joint, later adopted for use in BS EN 330 and AWPA Standard E9-97 were exposed at BRE in 1975 but all were assessed destructively during the early stages of exposure. The longest running trial which included replicates for long-term exposure will have been exposed for 20 years in July 2002. This paper provides an overview of the results of testing during that p...
J K Carey
Invasion and colonisation of bamboo culm material by stain and decay fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10453
Two distinct stages of the fungal infection of bamboo culms can be identified: entry into the culm itself (invasion) and further colonisation by spread within the culm wall tissue. This laboratory study aimed to characterise different invasion strategies of a variety of fungi. Well-known isolates of white- (Coriolus versicolor, Schizophyllum commune), brown- (Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum tra...
G Kleist, I Morris, R J Murphy
The colonisation pattern of anaerobic fungi in wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1403
Timber foundations may be degraded in service in anaerobic conditions. The present work was conducted to investigate whether anaerobic fungi could colonise wood, using rumen fungi as test microorganisms. Strictly anaerobic fungi were isolated and purified from cow dung and goat and sheep rumen fluids respectively. Colonisation of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula by these fungi and Neocallimasti...
A H Wiederhold, M Morrison, A A W Baecker
Differential susceptibility of living and dead timber to colonisation by sapstain and mould fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10288
Field studies have revealed that when timber is irradiated (i.e. killed) it is more susceptible to colonisation by mould fungi than sapstain fungi. By comparison, freshly sawn timber shows very little mould colonisation, tending to be colonised by sapstain fungi. It appears, therefore that the physiological state of the wood may influence the pattern of colonisation. A laboratory trial was underta...
J R Williams, D J Dickinson, J F Webber
Effect of bioextracts on colonisation of radiata pine sapwood by three sapstain fungi
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10485
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous bioextracts prepared following two-week incubation of forest soil, garden compost and chicken manure respectively, on the ability of Ophiostoma flocossum, Leptographium procerum and Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise unseasoned radiata pine sapwood. The research showed that all bioextracts tested retarded the rate of fungal colonis...
J van der Waals, C Chittenden, B Kreber
Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study...
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith
Non-destructive detection of the presence and behaviour patterns of wood-destroying insects
1988 - IRG/WP 2302
An apparatus, designed for the automatic recognition of the presence and of specific behaviour patterns of wood-boring insects, is introduced. From a wood sample, a mixture of noise and action induced substratum vibrations is picked up, amplified, filtered and translated into a sequence of computer-readable numbers which are passed to a microcomputer-based signal-pattern-recognition. If an incomin...
Patterns of decay in CCA-treated horticultural post populations - A fungus cellar simulation
1986 - IRG/WP 1286
The distribution of decayed posts in 10-, 14-, and 18-year-old vineyards supported a hypothesis to explain variability in intensity of decay found among posts in New Zealand horticultural properties. The development of decay patterns between samples in a simulated vineyard plot established in the Forest Research Institute fungus cellar gave additional support to the hypothesis that decay within la...
M E Hedley
Colonisation and detection of New Zealand sapstain fungi
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10329
Sapstain is the bluish black discolouration in logs and timber caused in New Zealand by Sphaeropsis sapinea (Diploida pinea) and more than twenty different species of the Ophiostomataceae Family. Laboratory and field trials were conducted by inoculating radiata pine to establish staining colour and extent of colonisation with various New Zealand sapstaining fungal species. Colonisation patterns, c...
J M Thwaites, R L Farrell