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Soil blocks versus field test for evaluating and standardizing wood preservatives: A commercial view
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20024
On the basis of technical considerations, experience, costs and applicability, the author concludes that the soil block test and other laboratory tests have little meaning in a wood preservative standardization process and almost no merit in the commercialization of a wood preservative system. Field tests at sites known to be aggressive to preservative treated wood are strongly recommended.
W S McNamara


The preventive actions of three commercial wood preservatives against Dinoderus minutus
1984 - IRG/WP 1233
Dinoderus minutus is one of the most common pest insects for the bamboos. For preventing the damages of this insect, the preventive treatment of bamboos with preservatives is necessary. But because of the environmental reasons, only limited insecticides are available in Japan. The author determined the preventive effects of three commercial products against Dinoderus minutus by the medium of the Buckwheat Cake and also by a bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusolides). The results obtained were severer than ones of Lyctus brunneus. In the case of dipping treatment of the bamboo, Fenitrothion is more effective than two other preservatives (Chlordane and Phoxim).
K Suzuki


Tolerance of Wood Decay Fungi to Commercial Copper Based Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30291
Due to the use of copper based preservatives like CCB or CCA for more than a century, copper tolerant fungi have appeared in some European countries in recent times. It is therefore important to find out whether this phenomenon is specific for only classical copper ingredients, or generally for all copper based formulation. Thus, we tested the tolerance of three commercial copper based preservatives and copper(II) sulphate as well as potassium dichromate for comparison. In this research, seven copper tolerant Antrodia isolates and copper intolerant fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were tested using a screening test and standard laboratory test SIST EN 113. Screening test were performed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) with copper concentration between 5.0×10-4 and 2.5×10-2 mol/l. The tolerance determined by the screening test was not always comparable with results obtained with the standard laboratory test. However, results obtained on wood samples showed that various fungal isolates exhibited different levels of copper tolerance depending on the copper based biocide. Tolerant strains were able to decay copper sulfate as well as copper naphthenate preserved wood samples. On the other hand, even the most tolerant fungi could not decompose wood preserved with classical CCB or copper amine preservative. It can therefore be concluded that various fungal isolates exhibited different copper tolerance regarding copper formulations. This finding is very important for remediation of waste treated wood by fungi. For a successful detoxification of waste wood impregnated with multi salt preservatives like CCA or CCB the suitable tolerant fungal strains have to be used, simultaneously for synergistic action.
F Pohleven, M Humar, S A Amartey, J Benedik


Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chemicals used for wood durability improvement by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20349
The Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be a suitable technique to assess chemicals used for wood durability improvement in the forest products industry. NIRS methodology can be used to obtain results more quickly, less costly and without damaging the wood. In this study, wood samples selected from heartwood and sapwood of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) were prepared to assess the artificial durability by NIRS technique. Pieces of veneer (strips) of Maritime Pine were impregnated by wood preservatives containing active components such as boric acid, copper, cypermethrin, IPBC, permethrin, propiconazol, and tebuconazol. Four commercial products sold for industrial wood protection from different companies were tested. Three steeping times were used in order to obtain three concentrations of each product. They were applied on 120 strips of wood by products, 20 per concentration for both heartwood and sapwood. Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique was used to calibrate NIR spectra collected. In this preliminary study, we expose the first results on qualitative and quantitative assessment by using NIRS technique of chemicals used for wood durability improvement. It was possible to distinguish between raw and commercial products treated Maritime pine wood containing organic and inorganic preservatives. This shows the potential of NIRS technique which could be used efficiently in rapid identification and quantification of organic and inorganic wood preservatives.
S Zahri, F Charrier, H Baillères, B Charrier


Efficacy of commercial wood preservatives against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a quarantine organism in Europe
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30638
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer 1934) Nickle, 1970, pine wilt nematode (PWN), is a quarantine organism with a high potential to damage Conifer forests in Europe. This has driven the European Union to protect forest stands from the propagation and dispersion of this pathogen. Since the nematode was detected in Europe, eradication measures were taken. However, these measures were unsuccessful in decreasing the infection level, leading to the announcement of new European regulations (2006/133/CE, Commission on 13 February 2006). The new regulations have not prevented the dispersion of this organism, as Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has been detected in wood material through commercial trade. Timber is a material treated with specific products against wood decay organisms, and now, additionally it has been submitted to thermo-treatment through ISPM 15 to control the PWN. In this sense, the industrial sector is concerned whether if the adopted thermal treatment is enough and if the wood treatments are effective against the nematode. For this reason, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the efficacy against B. xylophilus, of the most frequently anti blue-stain products in green wood in four of pine species (Pinus sylvestris, P. pinaster, P. radiata and P. nigra). The results shows that all the wood products tested are effective against PWN in the green sound wood, but they don´t present the same protective behavior with the stained wood. In consequence, timber protected with commercialized wood preservatives will be the best way to warrant a good control of PWN in sawmills, and in some situations may prevent the application of NIMF-15.
C S Arcos, A Navas, L Robertson, M T Troya, M Conde, F Llinares


Discrimination of five commercial wood preservatives by handheld near-infrared spectrometers and Multivariate Data Analysis
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20686
Nowadays, the recycling potential of wood waste is still limited, because of a lack of reliable lack of a reliable and fast device allowing the discrimination of preservative-treated wood that contains organic or/and inorganic contaminants. The purpose of this study was to set up a methodology, based on a SCiO low-cost handheld NIR spectrometer, and multivariate data analysis (MDA). Spectra was obtained on solid maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood impregnated with 5 different commercial preservatives at 3 different concentration levels (50, 70, 100%). Two classification methodologies were used: PLS-DA, and SVM-DA. Additional statistical analysis (Student's t-test with a significance level of 5%) highlight the absorption bands impacted by the presence of the wood preservative. For classification methodologies, several criteria were used to compare the performance of the classification models. Regarding the universal F1 Score performance criterion, SVM-DA model outperforms the PLS-DA model. Compared to PLS-DA model, SVM-DA model has been improved by 65%. Another criterion, such as, Sensitivity, indicated, For SVM-DA, that the correctly classified is comprised between 82 to 100%, whereas, for PLS-DA, the correctly classified is comprised between 43 to 90%. These findings show that the SCiO low-cost handheld NIR spectrometer coupled to MDA, such as SVM-DA model is useful to correctly classifying preservative-treated wood and opens new possibility in wood waste recycling.
M Rubini, P Dulucq, B Charrier


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen


Finishes for outdoor timbers
1975 - IRG/WP 378
Anonymous


Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix


Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
K Tsunoda


Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation.
A Kundzewicz


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providing up 90% control at a concentration of 2.5%. A potential alternative, Stopstain a borate-based chemical, gave results only slightly better than the untreated control timber, at a concentration of 5%. Unless the environmental cost and toxicological hazards of traditional chemicals are highlighted the newer and safer chemicals will be reluctantly accepted by industry as they are regarded as being prohibitively expensive.
A J Masuka


A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
N Vidovic


Marine testing of selected waterborne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 4137
In 1978 a marine test was established at West Vancouver, B C. to determine the performance of selected waterborne preservatives. The preservatives in test were chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA), a modified formulation of ACA which contained a higher copper content (modified ACA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and ammoniacal zinc arsenate (AZA). The wood species used for the test was red pine. After eight years in test the CCA is providing excellent performance at all retentions, while the modified ACA is showing significant deterioration only at the lowest level. The ACA is performing quite well although it shows signs of surface deterioration at all retention levels. The performance of the ACZA is rated as unsatisfactory at retentions below 32 kg/m³ while AZA was considered to be unsuitable for use in the marine environment.
J N R Ruddick


Registration and approval of wood preservatives in Australia and New Zealand
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-06
Wood preservatives are treated as agricultural chemicals in Australia and, at the time of writing, as pesticides in New Zealand. Antisapstain products are currently considered to be agricultural chemicals in New Zealand while wood preservatives in the future will be considered as hazardous substances under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act when this Act is fully implemented. They are regulated and approved for use by Government Departments under Ministers with responsibilities for agriculture and forestry and the environment: in Australia this is the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry; in New Zealand it is the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and, in the future, the Ministry for the Environment. Specific authorities within these Government instrumentalities control the registration and approvals procedures - the National Registration Authority (NRA) in Australia and, currently, the Pesticides Board in New Zealand. The latter situation is in a transition phase, with the Environment Risk Management Authority (ERMA) New Zealand expected to take over from the Pesticides Board by mid-2001. The NRA and the Pesticides Board require data packages that must include details of the preservative's application, chemistry, manufacture, toxicology, environmental credentials, and efficacy. The NRA administers the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code, which provides the Authority with the power to evaluate, register for use, and regulate the point of sale of a preservative. The evaluation procedure may involve Environment Australia in focusing on exposure and environmental toxicity data, the Department of Health and Aged Care in assessing toxicity to humans and the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission considering user safety aspects. Efficacy data can be obtained through testing to the Australasian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPC) Protocols. AWPC members may also act as experts in the assessment process and may also be involved in the development of national Standards. Thus, there is a ready conduit from registration and approval of a potential preservative to its incorporation for end use into day-to-day working standards.
H Greaves


Environmental status of wood preservation in the UK
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50018
The environmental status of wood preservatives and treated wood in the UK is summarised. The current legislatory position with respect to approvals, supply, use and waste disposal is considered. The bibliography at the end of this paper contains details of all publications referred to together with other relevant information although this cannot be exhaustive.
M Connell


Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


Organic solvent preservatives. Essays on the ecotoxicology of new formulations
1991 - IRG/WP 3642
The knowledge on the ecotoxicological profile of wood preservatives become more and more important. The acute toxicity against aquatic organisms was examined for oil-borne preservatives, based on combinations of new fungicides (Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, Dichlofluanid) and insecticides (Permethrin, Cyfluthrin). These tests were conducted with fish, daphnia and algae. In principle the different formulations showed similar effects. The results of active ingredients and solvents confirmed the high sensitiveness of daphnia as test organisms. Criteria for hazards for the environment are presented and discussed.
H-W Wegen


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Loss of preservatives from treated wood during service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3734
During the 23rd IRG conference in Harrogate the matter of preservative losses from treated wood during service was raised. We were asked to collect information in this field and ask now for help from you. Many tests have been carried out at a laboratory scale to study fixation and leaching from wood treated with different preservatives. Very little, however, is reported on losses of preservatives during service. Since these values are of great relevance regarding environmental impact and the final disposal, reuse or recycling of treated wood, it is of great importance to get as much information as possible on the amount of active ingredients lost during service life. We are convinced there are quite a lot of analytical data and additional information available in many places all over the world. It appears to be rewarding to collect those data and put them together adequately to get an astimate of the losses of the different components based on a broad scale of in service situations. This work will be done as soon as information is available and it is intended to present the results on next IRG meeting.
M-L Edlund, D Rudolph


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