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Analysis of decay progress anisotropy by X-ray computer tomography
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20501
Wood has a serious handicap as structural materials that it is vulnerable to decay by fungi. A weather exposed bridge has a possibility of an abrupt fall down, and wooden houses with heavily decayed structural members are easily destroyed by large earthquakes. To avoid such damages, a new predicting method on the decay progress in timber structures, and also its strength losing behavior along with...
K Maeda, M Ohta

Observation of Boring Process of Larvae of the Bamboo Powder-post Beetle (Dinoderus minutus)
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10821
The bamboo powder-post beetle Dinoderus minutus is a major pest of felled bamboo in Japan. X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to non-destructively trace the movement of the larvae of this beetle inside the infested bamboo samples. The bamboo samples were prepared from pieces of the Japanese timber bamboo Phyllostachys bambusoides culms that were enclosed with adult D. minutus beetles for a...
H Watanabe, Y Yanase, Y Fujii

Visualization of Feeding Process of Larvae of the Wood-boring Beetles Using X-ray Computer Tomography
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10953
X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to observe the movement of the larvae of the wood-boring beetles Lyctus brunneus, Lyctus africanus, and Heterobostrychus aequalis inside the infested wood specimens. The larvae bred with artificial diet were inserted into the hole of wood specimens of rubber wood Hevea spp. or Japanese oak Quercus crispula. The wood specimens with larvae were scanned usin...
Y Yanase, H Watanabe, I Fujimoto, T Yoshimura, Y Fujii

X-ray micro-computed tomography of copper distribution in CA, ACQ and MCA treated wood and changes in microstructure of ACQ-treated southern pine following natural weathering
2024 - IRG/WP 24-20707
We hypothesized that X-ray micro-CT would be able to visualize: (a) the distribution of copper in CA-treated southern pine; and (b) microstructural changes in ACQ-treated southern pine exposed to natural weathering. Small blocks were removed from southern pine samples treated with CA and also southern pine treated with ACQ and MCA. Small blocks were also removed from ACQ-treated boards (flat and p...
D Feng, M Turner, P D Evans

Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211...
J K Carey, J G Savory

Decay resistance of wood removed from poles treated with Trichoderma
1989 - IRG/WP 1386
Wood blocks removed from a distribution pole previously treated with a biological control product (Binab FYT pellets) were exposed in soil block tests to selected basidiomycetes. The blocks were removed from regions of poles where Trichoderma colonization had been confirmed by extensive sampling and computer mapping of microbial inhabitants. The results indicate that material from pole interiors c...
A Bruce, B King, T L Highley

Collaborative soft rot tests: Proposals for a standardized soil burial test
1971 - IRG/WP 201
A F Bravery

Collaborative soft rot tests: Interim report on PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1972 - IRG/WP 211
Preservative: Tanalith CT.106 - Results obtained with beech are given in the table and indicate a toxic limit of 16.7-19.2 kg/m³ - The initial soil moisture content was adjusted to 27.8% (the water holding capacity). Noticeable drying out has occurred in some of the test bottles....
J G Savory

Report on a field demonstration of methods for detecting defects in wood poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2232
P I Morris, H Friis-Hansen

Computer-assisted numerical clustering analysis of various strains of Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen:Fr.) Schroeter apud Cohn
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2396
Eight strains of Serpula lacrymans were compared in relation to their previously determined factors (5 physiological and 10 toxicometrical). A numerical clustering analysis was used along with, as coefficient of similarity, "cos Q" after standardization of all results. Results with respect to the combined factors showed a mutual similarity within four groups of strains. The first of these groups c...
J Wazny, J D Thornton, P Stenzel

A deflection test for monitoring decay in miniature beams
1986 - IRG/WP 2269
A laboratory apparatus for assessing decay in small stakes is described. It involves the measurement of deflection in a static bending apparatus using a displacement transducer linked to a microcomputer. Measurements are non-destructive, rapid, accurate and automatic and decay can be assessed repeatedly over long time periods....
S M Gray

Three dimensional computer representations of growth of microbial populations in wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1243
Creosoted distribution poles inoculated with either Lentinus lepideus, biological control organisms including Triochoderma or combinations of both were extensively sampled to monitor the spread of organisms. A computer program which enabled the results to be portrayed in a three dimensional graphic form was developed and is illustrated. Results showed that computer mapping of this type usefully en...
A Bruce, B King, C Bruce, G M Smith

An Australian test of wood preservatives. Part 1: Preservatives, principles and practices
1978 - IRG/WP 2123
Between November, 1963, and July, 1964, a graveyard test of some 6000 preservative-treated stakes was installed at 8 sites equally distributed between Papua New Guinea in the tropics, through Queensland and New South Wales to Victoria. More than 40 different preservatives and preservative mixtures, mostly at several different levels of retention, were used to impregnate sawn specimens of Pinus rad...
J Beesley

New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives. Part 2: Computer-assisted miniaturisation of wood specimens
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20052
The mass loss of wood used as a criterion in the standarised agar-block method of evaluation of toxic value of preservatives depends upon the relationship between volume of specimens, their outspread planes and ratio of areas of particular anatomic sections. Upon the computer-assisted mathematical basis the dimensions of miniaturized specimens which make 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 part of standarized ones ...
J Wazny, K J Krajewski

Effect of test site, preservative and wood species on decay type Glenbervie pastoral and radiata pine forest sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30248
Pinus radiata stakes were treated with 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.7 and 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 2.7, 4.1 and 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with equivalent retentions of a copper plus triazole preservative (CT) (0.89, 1.3, 2 and 3 kg/m3 of copper for pine & 2.5 and 4 for beech) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (CC) (1.4, 2.1, 3.2 and 4.8 kg/m3 of chlo...
R N Wakeling

Addendum to paper for discussion in Working II
1970 - IRG/WP II 5B
In view of the limited time that will be available for discussions in Nancy, this addendum has been prepared. Arising from the previous collaborative work and Mr Bravery’s visit to most of the co-operating Institutes, a scheme of work entailing tests carried out 1) by a technique chosen by individual Institutes; 2) by an agreed standardised technique would appear to be the best approach. A compl...
J G Savory, A F Bravery

Computer-assisted ranking of potential biocontrol fungi based on data from laboratory screening trials
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10023
Forty two fungal isolates were screened for antibiotic activity. In these sceering tests inhibition of target wood decay fungi was expressed as a series of numerical scores for each isolate. These scores, along with values for 5 other charactetistics, were used to assess the isolates. Using selection indices, isolates were judged on the basis of all the characteristics combined and, ranked in orde...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson

Computerized axial tomography. A non-destructive method for three-dimensional wood density/moisture content measurement
1987 - IRG/WP 2285
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT-scanning) - used for medical investigations of the brain - has been evaluated as a nondestructive method of three-dimensional wood density/moisture content measurements. Density can be measured with an accuracy of ±3 kg/m³, and the accuracy in average moisture content is ±1% below and above fibre saturation point. It is theoretically possible that measurements...
L O Lindgren

Industrial fixation systems: key factors, limitations and optimisation through the use of computer simulation modelling. Discussion paper
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40026
This paper briefly describes four fixation operative in the Netherlands, namely: circulating and non-circulating steam fixation cylinders, steam fixation chambers and controlled climate rooms. The general limitations of industrial practice are reviewed against the background of established fixation theory. The controlling variables, both material and process-related, for fixation processing are sp...
A J Pendlebury, M Riepen, M J Boonstra, W Gard

Imaging fungal deterioration of wood using x-ray microtomography
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10240
Nondestructive tomographic images of solid Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood and SYP during deterioration by wood decay fungi were obtained by using a new class of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT). The CMT images will provide information about spatial relationship between degrading fungi and wood structures. Wood samples were scanned with synchrotron-generated X-rays at high resoluti...
B Illman, B A Dowd

Moisture distribution in coated wooden panels. Studies of moisture dynamics by computerized axial tomography
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2413
Certain modern coatings have been held responsible for the rot damages in wood sidings, which have, during the past few years, appeared at an increasing extent in Scandinavia and which have occurred rather soon after the application of the coating. In this study, the moisture excluding effect of different coating systems intended for sidings have been studied with the help of an X-ray technique, c...
J Ekstedt, L O Lindgren, S Grundberg

Three-dimensional modeling of fumigant distribution in wood poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30025
The practice of using fumigants to control internal decay has been widely accepted in the United States and has shown to be effect in control internal decay in transmission poles and other large wood timbers. Mathematical models were developed to simulate the chloropicrin movement in utility poles after treatment. The simulation results indicated that treatment of utility poles, using either tradi...
Jing Liu, B Goodell

Examination of power poles by computerized tomography
1980 - IRG/WP 2142
The technique known as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT) has become widely known because of the success it has achieved in medical imaging and diagnostics. It has now been used to give non-destructive crosssectional pictures of a variety of industrial objects, including wooden power poles, with a spatial resolution of about 1 mm (0.04 in.). It is obvious the benefits that would be derived from...
J A Taylor, I L Morgan, H Ellinger

Non-destructive evaluation of wood decay
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20479
Evaluation of wood decay is often prone to subjective assessment. Standard rating scales are based on human perception of decay, often in addition to weight loss measurements. Especially the assessment of graveyard specimens or other long term testing material that has to be monitored regularly on a non-destructive basis, is challenging. In this paper two techniques are presented that can deliver ...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, N Defoirdt, J Van Acker

Use of X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography to Visualize Copper in Preservative Treated Wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20488
This study tests the hypothesis that X-ray micro-computed tomography will be able to visualize the distribution of copper in wood treated with a micronized wood preservative containing copper carbonate. A small wood block measuring 12 x 12 x 19 mm was cut from a 2.4 m x 51 mm x 51 mm southern pine batten that had been treated with a micronized wood preservative. Tomograms of the wood block were ob...
P D Evans, A Limaye, H Averdunk, M Turner, T J Senden, M A Knackstedt

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