Your search resulted in 668 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Soil-bed studies (Part 3): A cause of failure of multisalt preservatives following soil-bed exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 3261
P Vinden, J F Levy, D J Dickinson
Examen chimique du traitement de poteaux effectué à St-Michel s/Meurthe
1974 - IRG/WP 337
J Guillemain-Thévenot, C Jacquiot
Literature survey on the permanence and distribution of salt-type wood preservatives
1969 - IRG/WP III 1B
The objective of this survey is generally to review some of the more important published work dealing with the distribution and permanence of salt-type waterborne wood preservatives in treated timber. The survey is limited to the major chrome-containing formulations and the classification system proposed by Becker (1964) has been adopted throughout. CK - chromium, copper (copper, chrome); CKA - c...
Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic ...
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King
A Soil Bed Test of the Effect of CCA Penetration on the Performance of Hem-fir Plywood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30332
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated Western hemlock/amabilis fir plywood treated to meet the preserved wood foundation (PWF) retention standard with various patterns of preservative penetration. Short lengths of treated plywood and comparable untreated material were installed in a soil bed. After eleven years of exposure, the CCA treatments were all sou...
P I Morris, J K Ingram
Preliminary study on relation of wood structure to copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) distribution in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40054
Kempas had been treated with copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservative using full cell process. Analysis of preservative distribution at the micro level in relation to wood structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDXA) analysis. The results showed that CCA elements were detected in all wood tissues at different ratios. Distribution of chemical...
S Ani, S Salamah
Anatomical Characteristics to the Distribution of Water-borne Copper Wood Preservatives in Wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40277
The objective of this study was to understand the micro-distribution of a copper-based preservative in wood in connection with anatomical morphology and to consider the fixation of copper in wood. Bulk specimens and semi-ultra thin sections (0.5µm) obtained from Japanese cedar were treated with a CuAz preservative solution. After fixation, SEM-EDXA was used to investigate the micro-distribution...
H Matsunaga, J Matsumura, K Oda
Equilibrium distribution of toxic elements in the burning of impregnated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50172
The current work focuses on predicting the behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper in the burning of impregnated wood. A theoretical method is used to study the chemistry of the system, with special interest directed towards the vaporization tendency of the potentially toxic elements. The core of the study is the global equilibrium analysis that simultaneously takes into consideration all chemic...
K Sandelin, R Backman
Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to m...
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund
The non-uniform uptake of chromium and copper during the impregnation of wood using the example of a CCB-salt
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20137
The correct impregnation of wood requires among other things a regular control of the concentration of the treating solution as this and/or its stoichometric composition can change as a result of the impregna-tion process and the treated wood. The preferential uptake of individual wood preservative components by the wood is of particular importance in this connection. Dipping and vacuum impregnat...
P Jüngel, E Melcher, R-D Peek
Distribution of copper/chrome/boron preservative in light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) before and after exposure test for 72 months
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20073
Copper/chrome/boron (CCB) preservative at 6% w/w was impregnated into light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) by full cell process. The quantitative analysis for copper, chrome and boron contents in treated wood samples was carried out by Inductive Couple Plasma (ICP). Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) was used to monitor the distribution of copper, chrome and boron in the various treated wood tiss...
S Salamah, S Ani
A note on the distribution of copper-chrome-boric (CCB) along the culm length of freshly felled bamboo treated by modified Boucherie process
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40317
Preservative treatment of green and dry bamboo poses severe problems. A number of bamboo/ wood preservatives (Chemical formulations) for the destroying organism like fungi, borers and termites etc. In this paper we reported preliminary results of treatment of fresh green round bamboo attached with baranches by modified Boucheri process. Sample full length of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalam...
R Lal, C N Vani
Accelerated diffusion treatment of sawn Sitka spruce grown in the UK
1986 - IRG/WP 3395
The treatment of 'green' sapwood and heartwood of Sitka spruce by diffusion methods was investigated. Steam/dip treatment processes gave increased solution uptakes and depths of penetration of copper in comparison with a simple dip treatment. Further investigation is required to reduce diffusion gradients with copper based formulations and to improve the penetration of '...
R J Murphy, D J Dickinson
Diffusion and interaction of components of water-borne preservatives in the wood cell wall
1988 - IRG/WP 3474
This study investigates the rates of diffusion and ultimate distributions of copper and arsenate components of wood preservatives in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Adsorption studies of copper on red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood confirm the importance of cation exchange reactions on the ultimate distribution of copper in the wood substance and i...
P A Cooper
Microdistribution of Copper in Copper-Ethanolamine (Cu-EA) Treated Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus spp.) related to density distribution
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40270
The relationship between copper absorption and density distribution in wood cell walls was investigated in this study. The density distribution on layer level was obtained from two approaches: (1) calculation by using data obtained from literature; (2) microdistribution of carbon and oxygen atoms in the wood cell. The microdistribution of carbon and oxygen in untreated southern yellow pine (Pinus ...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem, E Pasek
The micro-distribution of copper/chrome/arsenate in Acer pseudoplatanus and Eucalyptus maculata
1973 - IRG/WP 319
The excellent field performance of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) treated timber has been accepted for many years. The preservative loadings used in practice have been based on field trial results, backed by service tests. The performance of treated hardwoods in trials and practice indicated that provided the required loading and penetration could be achieved the performance would be good. Recent un...
D J Dickinson
Fixation of chromated wood preservatives through technical drying
1990 - IRG/WP 3623
Twin samples of sawn timber of Pinus sylvestris and Picea sp. were treated with copper-chromate-containing wood preservatives and subsequently kiln resp. air dried. After drying, the distribution of preservative and rate of fixation were determined. Drying of freshly treated wood in a condenser type kiln at temperatures of 60°C and 80°C and in a vacuum type kiln at 55°C with a pressure of about...
R-D Peek, H Klipp
Interactions between soft rot fungi and CCA preservatives in Betula verrucosa
1988 - IRG/WP 1367
Ultrastructural investigations were carried out to obtain information on the cell wall distribution of CCA elements during soft rot decay of 4% K33 CCA preservative treated birch (Betula verrucosa) wood. TEM observations on fibres at various stages of S2 cavity formation by mutabilis showed a distinct pattern of electron dense materials to occur within the S2 cell wall region. These materials (gra...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
The Effect of Wick Action upon Moisture Distribution in Ellagate Treated Pinus radiata Wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40328
Sapwood stakes of Pinus radiata D. Don were treated with water-soluble tetraguanidinium, tetracholine and tetrakis-benzyltrimethylammonium ellagates. The effect of these treatments upon moisture distribution was investigated by wick action. Given that chemical reactions within the wood substrate between nutrients and treatment solutions may alter the properties of the wood with regard to moistur...
S R Przewloka, B J Shearer, J A Hann
Micro-Distribution of Metals in Wood Treated with a Nano-Copper Wood Preservative
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40360
The microdistribution of copper in southern pine treated with a newly-developed nano-copper wood preservative was examined to determine if it differed from that reported for wood treated with conventional copper-based wood preservatives. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) in combination with x-ray microanalysis (EDX) revealed the presence of nano-sized copper and iron particles i...
H Matsunaga, M Kiguchi, P Evans
Micro-Distribution of Micronized Copper in Southern Pine
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30479
For copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact, penetration of copper into the cell wall is believed to be important to protect the wood from soft rot fungi. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to do this. It is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control soft rot decay. An AWPA st...
R Stirling, J Drummond, Jun Zhang, R J Ziobro
Re-Distribution of Copper in the Cell Walls of Wood Treated with Micronized Copper Quat
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30506
Wood treated with copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact may fail to inhibit soft rot fungi if penetration of copper into the cell wall is insufficient. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to penetrate the cell wall; however, it is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control so...
R Stirling, J Drummond
Distribution and availability of preservative components in ACQ treated wood - effects of coatings and weathering
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30537
Copper and quaternary ammonium compound (quat) distributions across lumber (gradients) and availability, as measured by amount removed by intensive leaching of wood flour, were measured in ACQ treated southern pine lumber. Samples were evaluated just after treatment and stabilization, or after 3 years of laboratory storage, or after 3 years of natural weathering exposure. The objective was to in...
T Ung, M Nejad, P Cooper
Copper nanoparticles in southern pine wood treated with a micronised preservative: Can nanoparticles penetrate the cell walls of tracheids and ray parenchyma?
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30547
This study tests the hypothesis that copper nanoparticles can penetrate the cell walls of southern pine wood treated with a micronised preservative. We examined the nanodistribution of particles in tracheid and ray parenchyma cell walls using state-of-the-art HR (High Resolution)-TEM and HR-STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope)-EDX. These devices are capable of atomic-scale resolution. ...
H Matsunaga, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, P Evans
Influence of Copper Preservative Type on Earlywood and Latewood Distribution of Copper in Treated Wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40507
Some of the new water based copper containing wood preservative systems use particulate “micronized” copper as the primary biocide instead of the more traditional soluble amine copper based systems. Studies were conducted to investigate how this difference in the type of copper system might impact both initial and post drying distribution of the preservatives in wood. Of specific interest wa...