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Relative performance of copper/chrome/boron (CCB) and copper/chrome/arsenate (CCA) in ground contact
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3694
The performance of four retentions each of an oxide CCA formulation and a salt formulation of CCB in radiata pine and European beech was compared after 18 years' field exposure. In radiata pine CCA oxide was more effective (4 failures out of 40) than CCB (9 failures out of 40). However, in European beech CCB was substantially more effective (22 failures) than CCA oxide (all failed). Analy...
M E Hedley


Distribution of copper/chrome/boron preservative in light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) before and after exposure test for 72 months
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20073
Copper/chrome/boron (CCB) preservative at 6% w/w was impregnated into light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) by full cell process. The quantitative analysis for copper, chrome and boron contents in treated wood samples was carried out by Inductive Couple Plasma (ICP). Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) was used to monitor the distribution of copper, chrome and boron in the various treated wood tiss...
S Salamah, S Ani


Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was obs...
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury


Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – b...
K Akhter


CCB Preservative treatment of split muli (Melocanna baccifera ) bamboo by soaking process
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40336
This study was carried out in order to investigate the retention of chemicals inside the split muli ( Melocanna baccifera ) bamboo after preservative treatment by soaking process. Treatment with 10% aqueous solution of CCB (copper-chrome-boron) was applied in split bamboo of two sizes (1/4 part and 1/8 part) at three different moisture contents and five time periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours). It...
K Akhter, M H Chowdhury


Preservative treatment of Golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana) by pressure process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40379
The feasibility of preservative treatment of golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff) Mart). by pressure process has been studied using water borne preservatives CCB (copper-chrome-boron). Cane samples of three different lengths 1m, 2m and 3 m. were treated at different pressure and time period to evaluate the extent of penetration and retention of preservative chemicals. It was observed that t...
K Akhter, M Hoque Chowdhury


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins


Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal ac...
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner


The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative ...
F G Evans


Reticulitermes lucifugus Rossi, and its damages in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1152
The moist-wood termite, Reticulitermes lucifugus Rossi, is generally observed on the wood material which has a direct contact with the soil as trunks and fence stakes. It was reported to be found in some provinces in Turkey. The termite has been seen in these areas so far at the endemic level, but any considerable damage or epidemy has not yet been reported. Considerable damages were observed on t...
O A Sekendiz


Report of meetings of remedial treatments Sub-group held in Madrid, Spain during 27-28 April 1988
1988 - IRG/WP 3502
J N R Ruddick


Proposed test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative in seawater
1975 - IRG/WP 411
R A Eaton


X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
H Greaves


A laboratory soil-block decay evaluation of plywoods edge-treated with preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 2174
Preservative-treated plywood used under conditions or severe decay hazard frequently has its original, or cut edges, protected by the application of a field-cut preservative. This study uses a laboratory test method to compare the efficacy of four commercial preservative treatments against two commonly occurring brown-rot fungi. The results are not meant to indicate the service life of such treate...
R S Smith, A Byrne


Examen chimique du traitement de poteaux effectué à St-Michel s/Meurthe
1974 - IRG/WP 337
J Guillemain-Thévenot, C Jacquiot


Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components....
N Ermush, I Andersone


Literature survey on the permanence and distribution of salt-type wood preservatives
1969 - IRG/WP III 1B
The objective of this survey is generally to review some of the more important published work dealing with the distribution and permanence of salt-type waterborne wood preservatives in treated timber. The survey is limited to the major chrome-containing formulations and the classification system proposed by Becker (1964) has been adopted throughout. CK - chromium, copper (copper, chrome); CKA - c...
Anonymous


A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge ...
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


Fungi associated with groundline soft rot decay in copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood utility poles of Malaysian hardwoods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1567
Copper-chrome-arsenic treated heartwood from Malaysian hardwood utility poles in service for 8-23 y at two localities in the wet tropical Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed for soft rot in the ground-contact region. Soft rot decay was detected in all the poles. Isolation studies indicated the ability of a variety of microfungi and basidiomycetes to colonize treated heartwood. Most isolates exhibited...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, S C Watkinson


Chemical analyses of IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST (to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water) samples
1987 - IRG/WP 4114
Chemical analysis of CCA and CCB treated timber was carried out after exposure at tropical and temperate marine sites. Results indicated that losses of all elements had occurred. In particular, losses of boron were severe. Arsenic and copper were also lost. The chromium components in both formulations was the most dominant metal remaining. The results suggest that chromium modification was importa...
L E Leightley


Durability of wood in the area of wood-inhabiting termites in Slovenia
1981 - IRG/WP 1139
This report describes a research dealing with resistance and durability of five different species of wood. The experiment was made in natural conditions in the Slovene area of wood-inhabiting termites. The results of our experimental field, which correspond to the results of the former laboratory experiments, show a very weak resistance of spruce-wood, fir-wood, and beech-wood. They also show thei...
L Kervina


Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic ...
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King


The volatilization of arsenic on burning copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3111
Small scale burning experiments are described involving copper-chrome-arsenic treated wood. Approximately 20 per cent of the arsenic was volatilised when the wood was burned in air but 60 per cent when burned in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, this increase is attributed to an increase in combustion temperature. Although a small increase in arsenic evolution was found with an increased concentratio...
A-J Dobbs, C Grant


Effect of treatment process on performance of copper-chrome-arsenate. Part 2: Field stake tests
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40046
Pinus radiata sapwood stakes 20 x 20 x 400 mm³ were treated with CCA Type C using a range of concentrations and three treatment processes; Bethell, Lowry and Rueping. Preservative retention was determined by chemical analysis of treated material. Following fixation stakes were installed in a randomised plot in the Whaka graveyard located on the FRI campus. Stakes were inspected at yearly interval...
M E Hedley, J Anderson, J B Foster, B E Patterson


Preliminary study on relation of wood structure to copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) distribution in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40054
Kempas had been treated with copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservative using full cell process. Analysis of preservative distribution at the micro level in relation to wood structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDXA) analysis. The results showed that CCA elements were detected in all wood tissues at different ratios. Distribution of chemical...
S Ani, S Salamah


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