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A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been eluc...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


A possible role of unique TCA cycles in wood-rotting basidiomycetes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10461
The copper tolerant brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, acquires metabolic energy by use of the constitutively-occurring Kornberg’s glyoxylate cycle coordinating with oxalate biosynthesis and glucose oxidation (Erman Munir et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, (2001) 98, 11126-11130). Furthermore, this fungus does not have the normal TCA cycle, lacking 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase which is a ke...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


Effectiveness of Copper Indicators in Treated Wood Exposed to Copper Tolerant Fungi
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20554
Wood treated with a copper based wood preservative will typically turn a green color. While the depth of copper penetration can be readily discerned from the green color of the copper it is standard practice in research and commercial treating plants to make use of a color reagent such as Chrome Azurol S, Rubeanic acid or PAN indicator to reveal the penetration more clearly. When copper treat...
L Jin, K Brown, A Zahora, K Archer


Untreated and copper-treated wood soaked in sodium oxalate: Effects of decay by copper-tolerant and copper-sensitive fungi
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10888
Copper is widely used as the primary component in wood protectants because it demonstrates a broad range of biocidal properties. However, a key concern with using copper in wood preservative formulations is the possibility for brown-rot basidiomycetes to resist the toxic effect. Many brown-rot basidiomycetes have evolved mechanisms, like the production and accumulation of oxalate, which helps thes...
K M Ohno, G T Kirker, A B Bishell, C A Clausen


Extracellular layers of wood decay fungi and copper tolerance
1983 - IRG/WP 1180
Extracellular layers around the hyphae of brown, white and soft rot fungi have been examined using electron microscopy. These layers were isolated for identification. Particular interest was directed towards the extracellular layers of copper-tolerant soft rot fungi....
D M Francis, L E Leightley


Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula,...
F Green III, C A Clausen


Influence of acidification on decay processes of CCB treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10514
The phenomenon of copper tolerance by brown rot fungal strains has been known for a long period but the complete mechanism of copper tolerance by these fungi is not understood yet. Copper tolerance has previously been linked to oxalic acid excreted by copper tolerant brown rot fungal strains. This acid reacts with copper in the wood to form an insoluble and therefore less toxic copper oxalate. The...
M Humar, S A Amartey, M Šentjurc, F Pohleven


The Copper Tolerance of Mycelium vs. Spores for Two Brown Rot Fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10422
The copper tolerance of two brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Oligoporus placentus, has been tested using both mycelia and basidiospores as inoculum sources. Mycelial growth of O. placentus on agar medium was shown to be much more tolerant to copper (as copper sulfate) than that of G. sepiarium. However, there was no difference in copper tolerance of basidiospores between the two specie...
S Choi, J N R Ruddick, P I Morris


Growth of the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii on different substrates
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10121
In recent years the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii caused severe damages on impregnated wood in ground contact. The pattern of decay gave the impression that impregnated wood was even more severely attacked than unimpregnated. To investigate this question more closely laboratory tests were carried out. In a "choice test" Antrodia vaillantii grew preferably towards CC-impregna...
H Leithoff, I Stephan, M-T Lenz, R-D Peek


Characterization of Poria indoor brown-rot fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10094
The heterogeneous group of "Poria" fungi causing brown rot in buildings and also of wood in ground contact comprises Antrodia vaillantii, Antrodia serialis, Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha and Tyromyces placenta. These fungi have similar morphological appearance and biology. Their nomenclature has a confusing history and is still not uniform. As a consequence, misinterpretations may occur. SDS p...
O Schmidt


Micronized Copper Preservative Systems: Observations on the Release of Cupric ion (Cu2+) from Treated Wood and Performance against Wood Decay Fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30519
In an attempt to address the mechanism of action of micronized copper preservatives, a 20-week continuous water leaching study was conducted. The leaching results indicated that, once impregnated in wood, micronized copper preservatives continuously release cupric ion, and the levels of cupric ion released from micronized copper treated wood are higher than those released from CCA treated wood, a...
J Zhang, R Ziobro


Gene expression analysis of a copper-tolerant brown rot fungus on MCQ-treated wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10748
Most brown rot fungi are copper-tolerant, which makes them difficult to control with copper-based wood preservatives like MCQ. To better understand what biological processes are regulated, we used our model species, Antrodia radiculosa, to examine expression of genes on MCQ-treated wood. Our hypothesis was genes that decreased copper bioavailability would be up-regulated early, when wood showed ...
J D Tang, A Perkins, S V Diehl


Relative efficacy of various oxine copper formulations against brown-rot fungi
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30741
This paper investigates the relative resistance of three different oxine copper formulations (oil-borne, water-borne, water-borne with pH-adjustment) as a preservative treatment for wood against brown-rot fungi. Impregnated southern pine sapwood cubes were exposed to R. placenta and G. trabeum cultures in a soil-block test. After eight weeks, the weight losses of the cubes were examined in relatio...
M Petruch, J Lloyd, A Taylor


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley


Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also ...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no...
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
J Bech-Andersen


Durability of larch (Larix spp.) wood against brown-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10228
Durability of the heartwood of Larix decidua, L. sibirica, L. gmelinii, L. gmelinii var japonica, L. gmelinii var olgensis and L. sibirica x decidua against brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum was tested according to EN 113 test method. Parallel samples were used to study the amount and composition of wood extractives. The sample trees originated from the re...
H Viitanen, L Paajanen, P Saranpää, P Viitaniemi


Gloeophyllum trabeum and Gloeophyllum abietinum, the most frequent brown rot fungi in fir wood joinery
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10319
In Croatia the primary raw material for joinery production is silver fir wood (Abies alba Mill). L-joints made of home-grown fir sapwood and prepared according to EN 330: 1993 were used to establish the infection and colonisation of micro-organisms, particularly wood decay fungi, to compare the performance of untreated and 1% TnBTO treated L-joints. The L-joints were coated with two types of coat,...
R Despot, M Glavas


The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources u...
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 usin...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


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