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Quantitative assessment of the condition of field specimens
1981 - IRG/WP 2154
Suggestions for a discussion on the desirability of an extension to the existing procedure of assessment of the condition of field specimens by adding more objective, reproducible methods in order to obtain earlier and more specific information than at present on the effect of biological attack on strength and other properties of the specimens as well as the time aspect....
H Friis-Hansen


Field stake test assessment with the Pilodyn
1980 - IRG/WP 2136
The Pilodyn, which was originally developed to estimate the degree of soft rot in wooden poles, was thought to have potential for giving a quantitative measure of the extent or depth of decay in field test stakes. In the present work a 2-joule Pilodyn with 2.0-mm diameter pin was used in an attempt to limit depth of pin penetration (to 10-15 mm) without reducing scale sensitivity. The results show...
M E Hedley, R W Naish


Assessment of wood decay in small-scale unsterile soil-bed tests
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20111
This study is concerned with the investigation of wood decay in small-scale unsterile soil-bed tests. Tests were performed with untreated heartwood samples from five hardwood species of different natural durability classes ranging from highly perishable to very resistant. Our results confirmed the critical role of soil moisture content on wood decay. The highest decay rates were observed at moistu...
L Machek, A M Derksen, R Sierra-Alvarez


Assessment of the Inhibition of wood decay fungi by volatile organic compounds identified from Trichoderma spp.
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10302
Previous research identified five volatile organic compounds produced by Trichoderma spp. that may be inhibitory to wood decay fungi. The effects of four of these volatile organic compounds, 2-propanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, heptanal and octanal were tested over a range of concentrations against four selected wood decay fungi. The fungi were incubated in malt extract broth under appropriate conditi...
S N Humphris, R E Wheatley, A Bruce, C Payne


Nondestructive assessment of biodegradation in southern pine sapwood exposed to attack by natural populations of decay fungi and subterranean termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20042
Field methods for evaluating decay resistance of experimentally treated materials lack a means for quantitative measurement of residual strength. Quantitative relationships between speed of impact-induced waves travelling parallel to the grain and residual compressive strength have been demonstrated in softwood attacked by brown rot-decay fungi, but the effects of termites have not been documented...
R C De Groot, R J Ross, W Nelson


Limitations of the Pilodyn when assessing decay in graveyard test stakes
1982 - IRG/WP 2168
The following examination was designed to evaluate more precisely the usefulness of the Pilodyn for routine, objective assessments of the condition of field test stakes and to examine its limitations, particularly in respect to: 1.) The importance of variables other than extent of decay which may affect Pilodyn readings; 2.) Practicality of obtaining multiple readings in decayed and non-decayed re...
M E Hedley


Moisture content and other tested values in. Double layer tests of different size in Lithuania and Germany
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20299
The paper presents measurement results of moisture content and the analysis of durability trial of double layer wood in variants of varying size, conducted in Girionys, Kaunas distr., Lithuania and in Hamburg, Germany. In this trial 3 sample sets of varying size, containing 25, 50 and 100 specimens, are used. The aim of this trial is to ascertain an optimal number of test specimens. The dynamics o...
J Saladis, A O Rapp


Acoustic technique for assessing decay in preservative treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20138
This study investigated the suitability of vibration techniques to assess the performance of wood preservatives in ground contact. Small stakes (10 x 5 x 100 mm3) of treated and untreated Scots pine sapwood were exposed to decay in lab-scale terrestrial ecosystems. Tests were conducted using three different soils including a garden compost soil, and soils obtained from a test field and a conifer f...
L Machek, M-L Edlund, R Sierra-Alvarez, H Millitz


Assessment of the Envelope Effect of Three Hot Oil Treatments: Resistance to Decay by Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40344
Timber of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) was treated in hot linseed oil, rapeseed oil and a proprietary resin derived from linseed oil. The samples were immersed in oil or resin under reduced pressure at temperatures of 180°C and 200°C. Very high uptakes of the oils or resin were recorded for pine, while spruce showed lower weight percent gains, below...
M J Spear, C A S Hill, S F Curling, D Jones, M D C Hale


A preliminary note on the role of moisture absorption rate in durability assessment
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20383
The rate of moisture uptake was studied in 15 wood species using vermiculite at varying moisture levels as the exposure medium. As might be expected, moisture uptake varied widely among the species studied. While some of the more durable wood species were also resistant to moisture uptake, this was not always true. The results are discussed in relation to performance in under varying environmenta...
J J Morrell, L P Francis


Assessment of decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10787
The decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi was investigated by using an air sampler. Japanese cedar disks measuring about 8 cm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness with moisture content at about 100 % were placed in a “BIOSAMP” air sampler and exposed to 1000 liters of air. Air sampling was carried out from June to September at the same sampling site in Tsukuba, Japan. The exposed disks were the...
I Momohara, Y Ota, K Sotome, T Nishimura


Assessment of Boracol 200RH (FrameSaver) as a remedial treatment to control decay in pre-decayed model timber frame units
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30529
Model timber frame units constructed from untreated radiata pine were pre-wetted to approximately 40% moisture content and inoculated with Coniophora puteana and Oligoporus placenta. Units were transferred to a controlled environment room maintained at 25°C and 95% RH for 7 and 10 weeks to allow two levels of decay to become established in units. Following pre-decay, units were disassembled, clea...
Mick Hedley, Dave Page, Jackie van der Waals


In-ground durability of wood-based products – Comparative assessment of graveyard field tests and terrestrial microcosms
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20538
Traditionally wood durability and the effectiveness of wood preservatives are determined in so-called graveyard tests (according to EN 252 or AWPA E7). For laboratory testing, terrestrial microcosms (TMC) can serve as an alternative. Both tests have been applied for different types of wood-based materials, preservative treated, modified and unmodified wood. However, the usability of laboratory res...
A Soetbeer, L Meyer, C Brischke, P Larsson-Brelid, J Jermer


A review of the analytical methods used in determining the decay resistance of heat treated wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40690
Heat treatment as a wood process is increasingly used because of its non-biocide behaviour and its low environmental impact. This sort of treatment is based on biopolymer chemical degradation by heat transfer. This process improves mainly the dimensional stability and the decay resistance of wood. Wood becomes darker after this type of treatment and thus gives it an aesthetic appearance. These i...
K Candelier, M-F Thévenon, A Pétrissans, S Dumarçay, P Gérardin, M Pétrissans


Assessment of the biological durability of wood treated with organosilicon compounds
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30685
The European wood construction market is in need of environmentally friendly wood-based products whose service life meets the expectations of end users. Non-biocidal silicon-based water repellents, which can be applied to different materials, help minimize their vulnerability/susceptibility to liquid water. Consequently, they have the potential of increasing wood’s resistance against decay fungi...
M Kutnik, M Montibus, S Derocker, S Salivati, J-P Lecomte


Assessment of the quality and lifetime of wooden pile foundations
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10883
The development of wooden pile foundations started centuries ago and enable man to build and live in strategic and fertile areas. Although the building methods, the building materials and the building regulations chanced especially over the last decades, worldwide wooden pile foundations still fulfil their function to support above ground constructions of which many belong to our cultural heritage...
R W W M Klaassen, A Jorissen, H Keijer


Preliminary Investigation into the Natural Decay Resistance of Nigerian Grown Hevea brasiliensis and Mitragyna ciliata wood to Phanerochaete chrysosporium White-Rot Fungus
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10919
Wood is an important and versatile structural building material that finds applications in numerous uses. However, wood is also a biological material vulnerable to degradation by microbial activities; this is especially true in the tropics. Following the scarcity of highly durable species from our natural forests and the introduction of so many lesser used/durable wood species into the booming tim...
J M Owoyemi, U O Emmanuel


Visual assessment of longitudinal wheel timbers and assessing the feasibility of extending wheel timber service life in the UK railway network
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20651
Timber has been a versatile building material for centuries and during the start of the Railway Age in the nineteenth century it was in considerable demand for use in the railway network, particularly bridge building. Timber is still in service and widely used throughout the UK railway network. The resilience and favourable strength to weight ratio and its relative ease of fabrication make it an...
J R Williams


Identification of Antifungal Compounds in Konjac Flying Powder and Assessment against Wood Decay Fungi
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30737
The antifungal activity of konjac (Amorphophallus rivieri) flying powder (a by-product produced during mechanical processing of konjac flour) ethanol extract was evaluated against wood decay fungi in culture. Compounds associated with antifungal activity in the extracts were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The antifungal active fractions were identified by ultra-high-per...
Z Bi, F Yang, Y Lei, J J Morrell, L Yan


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
J Larsen


Programme section 2, Test methodology and assessment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20126
IRG Secretariat


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated....
K Tsunoda


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