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The fate of salt preservatives in facility yard soils and decontamination of soils and drainage waters
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-25
Extensive studies during the past 10 to 15 years revealed that noticeable amounts of preservative components may be released in the environment by dripping off or by rain prior to fixation unless adequate precautions are taken. Therefore, soil and groundwater contamination especially from chromium-VI compounds but also from other inorganic and organic constituents exist in impregnation plants, possibly endangering the soil and groundwater ecosystem. The actual risk potential originating from chromium-containing wood preservatives in a practical situation are to be studied in the frame of a comprehensive research programme sponsored by the German Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT). Accompanying laboratory investigations are performed with the aim of assessing the various types of water-soluble wood preservatives with respect to whether or possibly which compounds remain mobile und thus bio-available in the soil. Special attention is drawn to the question as to which effective constituents are adsorbed to soil particles depending on the mineralogical-geological composition of the soil, and at what situation the retention capacity for effective components of different soils would be exceeded. The results of the pilot study and of parallel running laboratory tests serve as a basis of deterioration analyses for grading and assessing the endangering potential in the ecosystem and shall provide a basis for the choice of adequate remedial concepts and measures to avoid such environmental impacts.
R-D Peek, H Klipp, K Brandt


The decontamination of a historical xylotheque with liquid carbon dioxide
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10757
The pharmacist Johann Heinrich Linck senior (1674-1734) created the xylotheque (collection of wood species) in Leipzig, Saxony (Germany). His son, Johann Heinrich Linck junior (1734-1807), continued the valuable and unique collection, which now belongs to the Museum Waldenburg near Dresden, Germany. In the past the cupboard, including the wood specimens, was impregnated with a wood preservative containing dangerous pesticides. Consequently, the removal of these pesticides was necessary prior to the restoration.The furniture surface was cleaned with a special detoxification agent mainly made of orange terpenes, which could not be applied to the more sensitive xylotheque specimens. Liquid carbon dioxide was favored for their decontamination. A prototype of a plant at Amsonic, Switzerland, was available for decontamination. This prototype is the topic of a research project to develop a procedure to clean sensitive industrial goods with liquid carbon dioxide.Preliminary testing of the procedure was carried out on several test specimens from new and old timber with and without impregnation using “Hylotox 59”, imitating the historical specimens. The efficiency of pesticide reduction was determined by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and gas chromatography (GC).It was noted that most test specimens showed no marked changes in their properties and shape. Exceptions were test specimens with high resin content. The amount of pesticides could be reduced considerably on the surface of the specimens. However, leaching of pesticides over the whole cross-section of the test specimens was incomplete. Therefore, prior to the detoxification of the timber boards additional experiments need to be carried out to optimize the parameters of the process with regard to the decontamination rate.
S Zoppke, A Unger, J Mankiewicz, M Eisbein


Bibliographical study: Decontamination of wood and soils polluted by pesticides used in wood preservation: focus on Bioremediation methods using microbes
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50292
The purpose of this bibliographical study was to seek out the existence of projects (past, present, or future) on soil decontamination in wood treatment plants. Indeed, such polluted soils may contain dioxins and various types of furans. The aim was to find out whether there existed one or more methods bringing into play biodegradation techniques using, for example, species of fungi, yeasts, bacteria or enzymes enabling decontamination. Knowledge about the feasibility, costs, toxicity and implementation of such projects is also a key point. Likewise, the bibliographical study needed to focus on methods enabling such decontamination pathways and on whether it is possible to consider them using microbes.
Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, S Morel, J Beauchene


Decontamination of sludges, liquids and soils polluted by “class 1, 2 & 3a” and “temporary” wood treatment products from dipping tanks
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50315
Wood is one of the most widely used building materials as it is easy to find and process. As an organic material, time leads to a degradation of its substance, and even more so when it is exposed to pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and insects. In order to try and inhibit this phenomenon, several preservation treatments have been developed and applied thanks to the production of chemical biocides. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability or capacity of 45 ((44) strains of Basidiomycetes and 1 Ascomycete) wood-decay fungi to degrade eight* samples taken from the timber treatment tanks at four sawmills, and the ease with which they degrade woods treated with these 8 products. Wood degradation is to be studied through weight loss, to reveal fungus activity. At the same time as these studies, the impacts of pollutants**on the fungi and of the toxicity of the degraded products is to be assessed using physical-chemical methods. The results obtained showed that the experiment was adapted to the chosen fungus species. Product P3 seemed to be the most biodegradable by the fungi, especially by Pycnoporus sanguineus (74%), Ganoderma boninense (40%) Trametes versicolor (37%) and Coriolopsis polyzona (34%). Then came product P6 biodegraded by the fungi. The species Trametes versicolor (36%) and Coriolopsis polyzona (32%) degraded the product most. The physical-chemical show a real fungal action for Trametes versicolor (around 10% of biocide reduction). The strains Ganoderma boninense and Coriolopsis polyzona were also effective, though much less so (around 5%).Their action on the pollutants seemed to be more staggered in time. Here too, it will be necessary to extend their contact time. The Pynoporus sanguineus strains were much less effective. These results show that it will be possible to develop a novel method for decontaminating soils at treated timber storage sites and waste sludges accumulating at the bottom of timber treatment tanks using saprophytic microorganisms, particularly wood-decay fungi.
A Zaremski, E Wozniak, S Maman, C Zaremski, S Morel