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Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal ac...
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner

Analysis of creosote posts after 40 years of exposure
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50035
In the early 1950s The Western European Institute for Wood Preservation (WEI) started a program for testing creosote and salt treated posts in three exposure sites in Europe. Of these only the site in Simlångsdalen in south western Sweden remains today. The purpose with this investigation was to demonstrate which creosote components are still retained in the posts after 40 years of exposure and w...
G Bergqvist, S Holmroos

Depletion of wood preservatives after four years' marine exposure in Mt. Maunganui harbour, NZ
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50036
This paper reports on chemical analysis of marine test samples exposed in Mt. Maunganui harbour, New Zealand from 1977 to 1981. Depletion data for a Class II CCA, a CCA-A formulation, acid copper chromate and ammoniacal copper arsenate are presented. The results suggest differences in the rate of loss of individual preservative components among the four formulations and redistribution of individua...
K J Archer, A F Preston, C M Chittenden, D R Page

Stability and performance of tributyltin compounds
1984 - IRG/WP 3275
Based on the critical examinations of the disputable permanence of tributyltin compounds in wood, this paper deals with a number of examinations of the relative evaporation, thermal stability and oxidation stability of some TBT-compounds. While thermal and oxidative stability is high for all TBT-species, the relative evaporation at elevated temperature is highly variable, and lowest for the TBT-es...
F Imsgard, B Jensen, H A B Landsiedel, H Plum

Polyflavonoid tannins - From a cause of CCA soft-rot failure to the "missing link" between lignin and microdistribution theories
1986 - IRG/WP 3359
Polyflavonoid tannins are proven to be fast-reacting with CCA solutions and hence, to be strong competitors of the structural wood constituents for fixation of CCA preservatives. The consequence of this effect is that even relatively small amounts of tannin cause severe undertreatment of the structural wood constituents which in turn badly affects the long term durability of CCA-treated timber. Th...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, M Bariska

Sludge formation in timber treatment with CCA preservatives. Origin and elimination
1984 - IRG/WP 3276
The exact distributions between lignin and holocellulose and retentions on wood of copper, chromium and arsenic as a function of various sets of conditions in a factorial experiment in which combinations of three temperatures of treatment, three CCA solution concentrations, four pH's of the initial CCA solution and two timber species, namely Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus grandis, are repor...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen

An investigation into the influence of soil cation exchange capacity on preservative component depletion
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20050
The mobility of preservative components from treated wood into the soil environment is regarded as an important determinant of preservative performance. Standard procedures for the investigation of this phenomenon have not been developed to any great extent. Soil bed studies conducted in this laboratory using natural soil and modified soil media have provided interesting comparative data on the in...
K J Archer, L Jin

Effect of soil parameters on biocide depletion: laboratory and field studies of water- and emulsion-borne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30234
Two field test sites with different soils were selected. Soil analysis showed that the soil at the two sites had considerable texture, base saturation, acidity, and cation exchange capacity differences. Five sets of field stakes were treated as follows: three with water-borne CCA to about 0.4 pcf (6.4 kgm-3) retention, one with 0.75% DDAC, and one with 0.75% DDAC:0.25% chlorothalonil. The last two...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, D E Pettry, M G Kim

Black Stain of Western red-cedar by Aureobasidium pullulans and its Relationship with Tropolone Depletion
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10564
Western red-cedar is valued for its natural durability conferred by fungicidal tropolone chemicals. However, weathered surfaces of WRC products are still susceptible to ‘black stain’ caused by fungi such as Aureobasidium pullulans. The effect of weathering on the tropolone content of heartwood was characterized and correlated with the ability of this fungal species to colonize the same weather...
R Chedgy, R Daniels, P I Morris, C Breuil

Losses of preservatives from treated wood during service. Results from a questionnaire
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50031
From environmental as well as from performance point of view it is of interest to know how much of the preservatives in treated wood that is leached out or evaporated from the wood during service. Many laboratory studies are carried out on leaching from small samples in distilled water or water with different pH. These studies give a good picture of the relative leaching from wood treated with dif...
M-L Edlund

Laboratory studies of CCA-C-leaching: influence of wood and soil properties on extent of arsenic and copper depletion
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50186
The extent which a wood preservative leaches is important for efficacy studies and environmental concerns. However, little information exists on the effect soil properties have on leaching. This study investigated leaching of stakelets which had been cut from five different southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood boards then treated with CCA-C to a target retention of 6.4 kgm-3 (0.4 pcf). All stakel...
D Crawford, R F Fox, D P Kamden, S T Lebow, D D Nicholas, D Pettry, T Schultz, L Sites, R J Ziobro

The efficacy of polymer/preservative treatments in soil-bed exposure
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3729
Southern pine was treated with CCA, CCB, sodium borax/boric acid, or disodiumoctaborate, alone or in combination with an acrylic polymer system containing a water repellent. Treated samples were subjected to an unsterile soil burial test. The addition of polymer reduced the weight loss in borontreated samples at the lower retentions but not at the higher retention. Results with borates indicate th...
R J Murphy, H M Barnes, S M Gray

Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field ...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey

A comparison of the leaching resistance of copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30233
The depletion of copper from copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine blocks was investigated. A greater leaching resistance was found for copper 2-ethanolamine, which retained ca. 86% and ca. 50% copper after water and buffer leaching, respectively. Leached amine treated blocks also contained significant residual amine. This was consistent with other observations linked...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick

A trial of "sour" felling to prevent bluestain by depletion of sapwood nutrients
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10404
Discoloration of conifer wood caused by bluestain causes large economic losses in Canada. Most deep stain develops in the log stage during storage or transport. In a search for control strategies that will not disrupt woodlands productivity we tested "sour" felling, termed "hagarashi" in Japan. The practice involves delaying the delimbing of freshly harvested trees. The tree continues to transpire...
A Byrne, A Uzunovic, D Minchin, C Breuil

Quantification of creosote migration down wooden poles and the prevention of its depletion during flood irrigation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50032
Polyethylene field liners heat-shrunk onto soil-contact surfaces prevented decay of creosote-treated Eucalyptus grandis vineyard poles under flood-irrigation. The present work quantified losses of creosote from these poles after six and 24 months' service. After six months' service the mean creosote retention of unlined poles above the ground line was 12.62% (m/m dry wood), with ...
M Behr, A A W Baecker

Depletion of preservatives from treated wood: Results from laboratory, fungus cellar and field test
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-07
This paper compares results of preservative component losses using a range of test procedures with several different water-borne preservatives. The data shows that laboratory leaching tests are in some cases comparable to, but in other cases significantly underestimate preservative component losses when compared with field or fungus cellar depletion tests. The results also suggest that preservativ...
L Jin, A F Preston

Leaching of components from CCF treated timber in ground contact
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50108
In order to investigate the depletion of different CCF-salts during service small stakes (10*10*450mm³) were treated with five water-borne wood preservatives and after fixation brought into ground contact for several years. After failing some of the broken down stakes were used to determine the remaining concentration of relevant ions and their distribution in different segments of the stakes. A...
E Melcher

Effect of soil chemistry and physical properties on wood preservative leaching
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50111
When treated wood is placed in contact with soil, complicated mass transfer and chemical reactions occur which causes the preservative components to leach from the wood. There are several factors that are known to affect the amount of chemical leached from wood. These are properties of the preservative and carrier, preservative retention, degree of fixation, exposure time, grain orientation, surfa...
Joan-Hao Wang, D D Nicholas, L S Sites, D E Pettry

CCA type C depletion of Southern yellow pine utility poles
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50049
Depletion and redistribution of preservative components were evaluated on five CCA-C treated poles in service for over six years in Conley, Georgia. A statistical approach was taken in which retentions below ground were compared to retentions above ground due to a lack of initial data on individual poles. It was hypothesized that the below ground retentions should be lower than the corresponding a...
P D Osborne, R F Fox

Is Field Test Data from 20 x 20mm Stakes Reliable? Effects of Decay Hazard, Decay Type and Preservative Depletion Hazard
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20327
Effects of decay hazard, decay type and preservative depletion hazard on the performance of variously preservative treated 20 x 20 x 500 mm Radiata pine and Fagus sylvatica test stakes across 13 field test sites in New Zealand and Queensland Australia were determined. Radiata pine treated with an ammoniacal copper quaternary preservative (ACQ) (1.56% m/m a.i.) and copper chrome arsenate (CCA) (...
R Wakeling

Above and Below-Ground Depletion of Copper, Chromium and Arsenic from Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica at Thirteen Test Sites in New Zealand and Australia
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30402
The objective was to determine the significance of site and wood species on preservative depletion for a copper chrome arsenate preservative (CCA) from 20 x 20 x 500 mm field test stakes after 5.5 and 4.5 years for pine and beech respectively. At least 5 sacrificial stakes were used to produce site means. Site and wood species had a major effect on copper, chromium and arsenic loss from CCA treate...
R Wakeling

Above and Below-Ground Copper-Azole and Copper, Chrome Arsenate Depletion from Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica at Thirteen New Zealand & Australian Sites
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30460
The objective was to determine the significance of site on preservative depletion from Pinus radiata D. Don and Fagus sylvatica L. 20 x 20 x 500 mm field test stakes treated with a ground contact retention of copper amine plus tebuconazole (CuAz) and copper chrome arsenate (CCA) after approximately 5 years exposure to widely different soil and climate conditions. Site, wood species and their inter...
R Wakeling

Depletion and Redistribution of Boron in Bundles of Commercially Treated Lumber Exposed to Artificial and Natural Rainfall
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30474
The depletion and redistribution of boron from stacks of Southern Yellow Pine lumber pressure treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and exposed to artificial and natural rainfall was examined. When the lumber was exposed to periodic simulated rainfall, 5.7-8.1% of the measured boron present leached from the lumber after exposure to over 300 mm of rainfall. In tests which exposed bo...
M E Mankowski, M J Manning

Effect of a biological treatment on below ground decay of Douglas-fir pole sections
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40433
The use of exogenous sugars to accelerate microbial growth and eventually limit available oxygen in soil surrounding wood in soil contact was investigated on untreated Douglas-fir poles exposed over a 3 year period in Western Oregon. Isolation frequencies differed markedly between treated and untreated poles and the treatment did appear to shift the frequency of some basidiomycetes. The treatment ...
C Freitag and J J Morrell