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Influence of Drying Condition of Wood on Rusting of Nail
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40887
Recently in Japan, the durability of metal joint in wooden structures become important. Revised Building Standard Law was enacted in 2000 and Act on the Promotion of Popularization of Long-life Quality Housing was enacted in 2008 in Japan. Since then, the durability of the metal joints in the wooden houses becomes important. But there are not any detailed regulation for the durability of the metal joint in the wooden structures in Japan. In this study, nails driven into woods, -dried with high temperature, dried with middle temperature, dried with low temperature, natural-dried, and non-dried-, was put in high temperature and high humidity environment in long-term, for clarifying the influence of drying condition of wood on rusting of nails. After that, the shear test was conducted, and the rust on nails was removed for evaluating the mass loss by corrosion. As a result, follows were confirmed. 1. The shear strength of the nail is highest when the weight remaining ratio is about 95%-80%, and when rust progressed, the shear strength decrease. 2. The nails driven into sapwood rust remarkably than the nails driven into heartwood. 3. The nails -driven into woods with natural-dried or non-tried rust remarkably than dried with high temperature, dried with middle temperature, or dried with low temperature.
H Ishiyama, N Wada, T Nishimura, T Mori

Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evaporation. Satisfactory penetration of TBTO into initially methanol-saturated samples occurred in a similar period. The factors influencing. such treatments are discussed. High initial moisture content of the wood and a high operating temperature are particularly desirable. Some aspects of the possible commercial operation of the process are discussed.
J A Petty

Low temperature drying conditions of Pinus radiata wood for avoiding internal stain
1989 - IRG/WP 3507
It has been observed that, if in little sawmills, timber is dried with a low temperature schedule, it arrives at destination with internal sapstain besides of superficial mould. In this study, the lowest drying temperature at which wood should be exposed for sterilization, which results to be 52°C, is searched. It is not possible to avoid entrainment of pentachlorophenol, even though a waiting period of 72 hours after dipping the wood in a pentachlorophenate/borax solution before drying is considered. The residual content of pentachlorophenol in wood should be at least 400 µg/cm² or the moisture content less than 23% for avoiding the development of mould.
M C Rose

Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls.
M J Collins, P Vinden

The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used.
P R S Cobham, P Vinden

Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy

Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest of wood treaters, mainly because of its potential use in permanent wooden foundations. We identified this trend and extended our research work to the treatability of spruce lumber.
R Rak

An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins

Quantitative assessment of the condition of field specimens
1981 - IRG/WP 2154
Suggestions for a discussion on the desirability of an extension to the existing procedure of assessment of the condition of field specimens by adding more objective, reproducible methods in order to obtain earlier and more specific information than at present on the effect of biological attack on strength and other properties of the specimens as well as the time aspect.
H Friis-Hansen

Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry

IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley

Borate thermal treatments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3715
Green, partially seasoned (air-dried, steam conditioned), or kiln-dried southern pine timbers were treated thermally using 15% disodiumoctaborate tetrahydrate solution. After treatment, sections were stored under non-drying conditions to allow for diffusion. Results showed that effective treatment meeting the AWPA minimum retention (0.17 B203 pcf [2.72 kg/m³] in the outer inch) and penetration (2.5-in [64-mm] or 85% of the sapwood) could be obtained only with certain combinations of seasoning, treatment, and diffusion storage. The best results in terms of both retention and penetration were obtained with material steamed and stored prior to treatment using a 10-min hot bath time. Kiln-dried timbers could not be treated effectively. The results suggest that non-conforming treatment of green or partially seasoned timbers will require higher solution concentrations, higher hot bath temperatures, and/or longer diffusion periods to meet required standards. Results also indicated that treatment of smaller stock in dimension sizes (up to 2-in [50-mm]) should be feasible.
H M Barnes, R W Landers, L H Williams

Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged to 6 and 14 days, and branding became a requirement. At the same time, treating companies replaced CCA with arsenic-free preservatives, and started using processes for accelerated fixation. Drying of treated wood was started to be used widely.
B Moldrup

Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved in chloroform; the timber species used was pine sapwood, (Pinus sylvestris L.). The method of seasoning had no influence on the toxic values of boric acid. With the g-BHC, however, the toxic values gradually increased with rising kiln temperatures (20°C, 70°C, 105°C). With boric acid the position of the sapwood samples in the log had no influence on the toxic efficacy; with g-BHC the efficacy was slightly greater in the outer sapwood, compared with the inner sapwood. The test temperatures (20°C, 24°C, 28°C) yielded different toxicity results for boric acid. At 24°C and 28°C the threshold values were somewhat below those of 20°C; they agreed with the values obtained at 20°C after a longer test period. With g-BHC different temperatures did not affect the results. An explanation is suggested for the causes of the influence exerted by the kiln temperature and wood properties on the toxic values of g-BHC. There was good agreement between the toxic values obtained in the different institutes.
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli

Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organisms. These results suggest that active biodetoxification of organic biocides could occur in a short period of time during storage of antisapstain treated timber under favourable conditions. The implications of these results are discussed.
G R Williams

IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1983 - IRG/WP 3269
G C Johnson, J D Thornton

Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning.
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri

Water-repellent additive for CCA
1991 - IRG/WP 3655
Hickson have developed a water repellent additive for incorporation into copper-chromium-arsenate timber treatment solutions. The water repellent emulsion shows good stability in the treatment solution, is easily incorporated and applied in a single stage treatment. No modifications to the additive is safe to treatment schedule are usually needed and use. Weathering of the treated wood is substantially inhibited by the presence of the additive. Adhesion of paints is not affected.
P Warburton, R F Fox, J A Cornfield

Survey of conditioning treatment practices in India
1978 - IRG/WP 3127
India has 75.3 million hectares (ie about 24% of total land area) under forests out of which the area of productive forests, from which industrial wood is available, is about 60 million ha. The Task Force on Forest Resources Survey has tentatively estimated that the total growing stock in Indian Forests is 24,000 million cubic metres (m³). The total recorded production of wood in the country is roughly estimated as 25 million m³ annually of which approximately 10 million m³ is demanded by various industries and the remaining is used as fuel. India, with developing economy needs very large resources of timbers for diverse purposes. There is already shortage of timber in the country for various wood based industries and it is expected this will progressively increase with the rapid pace of industrialisation. However, suitable measures are being taken to bridge the gap between demand and supply. The entire 10 m³ of industrial wood requires some sort of protection against wood-destroying agencies. Timber awaiting conversion during storage needs prophylactic treatment while for use as poles, fence posts, sleepers, building material, in cooling towers, boats, ships, in mines, in sea-water, etc., timber should be adequately treated with suitable wood preservatives to obtain satisfactory service life. Both heart and sapwood of non-durable species and only sapwood of durable species need protection against wood-destroying agencies. Wood Preservation on scientific and modern lines was introduced in India by Sir Ralph Pearson of the Indian Forest Service in the year 1908. In India, the first wood preservation plant was established at Bally in Howrah in 1854. Of the total timber extracted in India, only a very small proportion, estimated at about 5% is treated. This amounts to 0.45-0.50 million m³ of wood per annum. The total annual capacity of 140 preservation units, existing in the country at present, is estimated at 0.43 million m³ on single shift basis. IS: 401-1967 (Indian Standard - Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber) covers types of preservatives, their brief descriptions, methods of treatment, and the type and choice of treatment for different species of timber for a number of uses. This standard includes only such preservatives and methods of treatment which have given satisfactory results under Indian condition of service. According to this standard, whatever process of treatment is adopted, timber for treatment should be sound and should be dried to an appropriate moisture content (generally not more than 15% for open tank and 25% for pressure processes). All the wood working etc should be done prior to treatment. In case of timbers, specially some conifers having non-durable heartwood which is refractory to treatment, when treating thick members like railway sleepers, beams, piles, etc, incision of all the surfaces, other than the ends, to a depth of 12-20 mm is necessary.
M C Tewari

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell process from base (1 m) to apex (3 m) of the tree in sapwood zone. Accordingly, conclusions on indication of the drying process of sapwood and heartwood, and vertical variation of longitudinal flow with effects of moisture were listed separately: (1) Comparison of Drying Characteristic of Sapwood and Heartwood: The two different thickness (300x30x30 mm3 and 300x20x20 mm3) of sapwood and heartwood of Sitka spruce was dried using the suggested drying schedule in kiln. The reduction of moisture was schematically diagrammed according to sapwood and heartwood stakes. The reduction of moisture followed the same downward trend that sapwood (S) loses more moisture than heartwood (H) although the small stakes of S and H lost moisture rapidly compared with the large ones. (2) Vertical Variation of Moisture Content and Longitudinal Permeability: The 90 kiln dried defect free sapwood stakes (150x25x25 mm3) of Sitka spruce was taken from base to apex of the trees at 1, 2 and 3 m above ground level. After having the determination of moisture content in each experimental stake, the treatment was carried out by the full-cell process with CCA preservative (Tanalith-C) using a model pressure treatment plant. Significant differences observed among the tree heights from 1 to 3 m showing that slightly increases of moisture content from base to apex and conversely decreases of longitudinal void volume filled by preservative fluid.
I Usta

Co-operative Field Experiment: Performance of preservative-treated timber: Report on condition of specimens after seven years installed in New South Wales - Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 3362
R S Johnstone

Preservative treatment of Pinus elliottii
1987 - IRG/WP 3435
The treatment of Pinus elliottii with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative by four alternative seasoning and treatment methods is investigated. Steam conditioning followed by either alternating pressure method (APM) or 'Q' treatment resulted in inadequate preservative penetration. Air drying or high temperature drying followed by the Bethell process resulted in a high standard of treatment.
P Vinden, L Carter

Fixation of CCA in Pinus sylvestris after kiln-drying
1990 - IRG/WP 3594
Tanalith C Paste is 98% fixed and Tanalith Oxide C is 99% fixed irrespective of whether treated Pinus sylvestris is kiln or air dried. A schedule suitable for kiln drying of CCA treated Pinus sylvestris is described.
P Warburton, J A Cornfield, D A Lewis, D G Anderson

Accelerated wood decay in a soil bed test under greenhouse conditions compared with a stake test under field condition
1991 - IRG/WP 2384
The rate of decay of oak, beech, Douglas fir, pine and spruce stakes in an outside test field were compared with the decay rate of the same species in a greenhouse soil-bed test. Strength loss after four and six months respectively was measured by determining the compression strength parallel to the grain. The results show that all species, strength loss in the greenhouse was 2 to 4 times higher than under field conditions. The rate of strength loss correlates with the rate of weight loss.
J E Polman, S G Michon, H Militz

An Australian test of wood preservatives. - Part IV: The condition, after 35 years' exposure, of stakes treated with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30241
This paper contains the first results dealing with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives from this in-ground field trial in Australia. The substrates impregnated with preservative were Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. heartwood and sapwood. Data are reported from stakes exposed for 35 years at three Australian sites (Innisfail, Sydney, Walpeup). Comparisons were made between preservatives impregnated into P. radiata at 128 kg/m³ and exposed at Sydney. After 35 years, the mean condition of stakes treated with British standard, Australian K.55 (blend) and brown coal tar (high residue) creosote oils were serviceable. The mean condition of stakes treated with USA standard (AWPA P.1), Australian K.55 (ii, old Timbrol) and brown coal tar (distillate) creosote oils was unserviceable (ie. rated 3 or less out of 8). When a proportion of Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil was replaced by furnace oil, vertical retort tar or 2.5% pentachlorophenol (PCP) in furnace oil, the new combinations did not, on average, rate as highly as the Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil by itself. PCP was compared at 6.4 kg/m³ in P. radiata at Sydney. 5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) performed as well as Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil and much better than 5% PCP in diesel fuel oil (128 kg/m³). 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (256 kg/m³) rated the highest of any treatment containing 6.4 kg/m³ of PCP. The addition of dieldrin or chlordane improved the efficacy of 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) at Sydney, but not at Innisfail. The addition of benzene hexachloride showed greater protection than dieldrin or chlordane.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton

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