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Eastern redcedar included sapwood: Resistance to mold and termites under laboratory conditions
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10765
The heartwood of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) frequently contains areas of light-colored wood. This “included sapwood” is considered to be a defect by some manufacturers. In this study, sapwood, included sapwood and heartwood samples from five eastern redcedar trees were exposed to mold fungi or to subterranean termites in a no-choice feeding test. Extractives content was also measu...
C Köse, A M Taylor


Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility pole...
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied....
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


Wood-destroying insects found in the Eastern Black Sea sub-region of Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1153
The Eastern Black Sea subregion has important forest resources. The settlement areas are scattered at the countryside. That's why a good deal of wood and timber is used in the construction of buildings without sufficient protective measures in the rural areas. In the forests and rural buildings 52 wood-destroying insect species have been specified 35 of which are new in this subregion and...
O A Sekendiz


Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was ...
C D Ralph


Termites in Eastern Canada: An updated review and bibliography
1990 - IRG/WP 1431
This report updates Document No. IRG/WP/1333, issued in 1987. The current distribution of termites in eastern Canada and current termite control practices and controversies are explained, and current research is very briefly summarized. Since 1987, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) has been discovered in several more municipalities in the province of Ontario, and in Winn...
J K Grace


Preliminary evaluation of borate baits and dusts for eastern subterranean termite control
1990 - IRG/WP 1433
Borates are of potential use in the development of baiting systems for subterranean termite control. In the 15-day laboratory assays reported here, the oral toxicity of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate to Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was evaluated under choice and no-choice conditions. These assays suggest a range of 2500 to 5000 ppm to be applicable in developing baits, and that concentration...
J K Grace, A Abdallay, J M Sisson


Eastern subterranean termite responses to three soil pesticides
1990 - IRG/WP 1432
In laboratory assays simulating field conditions, tunneling and mortality of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) workers were evaluated in sand treated with aqueous solutions of formulated chlorpyrifos, isofenphos, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Chlopyrifos and isofenphos were evaluated at concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm (weight of active ingredient / weight of sand), and disodium octaborat...
J K Grace


Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of att...
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz


The evaluation of the occurrence of soft rot in creosoted wooden poles
1988 - IRG/WP 1368
The occurrence of soft rot decay in creosoted wooden poles for overhead power lines was investigated by collection of field samples, their subsequent microscopic examination and statistical analysis of the data collected. Examination of samples collected from 296 poles revealed that approximately 15% of the pole population studied (Eastern Electricity Board) showed the presence of soft rot decay. ...
A Wylde, D J Dickinson


Termites in Eastern Canada: A brief review and assessment
1987 - IRG/WP 1333
The distribution of termites in Canada is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in Ontario province. Municipal and provincial termite control programs are discussed and current treatment practices are described. Previous research on Reticulitermes flavipes in Ontario is briefly reviewed, with reference to a number of unpublished rep...
J K Grace


Wood protection by surface treatment of two borate preservatives, TIM-BOR® and BORA-CARE®, for the formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterrean termite
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10044
TIM-BOR® (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate: DOT, Na2B8O134H2O) and BORA-CARE® (40% DOT in ethylene glycol) are two borate products marketed for treating wood in use by brushing or spraying onto the wood surface. The active ingredients presumably diffuse into wood by the 10-15% existing wood moisture. Few data, however, are available to demonstrate the diffusion rate. Su & Scheffrahn (1991) s...
M Toroko, N-Y Su


Utility pole recycling and disposal in Eastern Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3587
Increasing public awareness, prompted by environmental groups such as Greenpeace, concerning the use and disposal of treated wood is becoming a serious issue in Canada. Producers and user groups of treated Pentachlorophenol (PCP) utility poles are at the forefront of public, government and media attention. If, as expected, further limitations on the use and disposal of PCP by the public are impose...
S D Henry


Check development on jack pine logs in Eastern Canada
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10387
Logs in storage are subject to check damage. The severity of the problem may vary with various environmental and storage conditions. In this study, an investigation was conducted on the development of checks in debarked and bark-on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) logs in Eastern Canada. In the summer of 1999, jack pine trees were felled, logs were debarked and stored in a sawmill yard. The logs were i...
Dian-Qing Yang, R Beauregard


Sapstain development on Jack pine logs in Eastern Canada
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10358
During 1998-99, a study was initiated to investigate the influence of seasons, log types and storage time on the sapstain development on jack pine logs at two sites in Eastern Canada. Jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana) were harvested into whole-tree and cut-to-length logs in spring and in autumn. Sapstain development was examined in these logs at 2 to 4 week intervals after felling. The mean stain ...
Dian-Qing Yang, R Beauregard


Remedial wood preservative efficacy of BORA-CARE against the Formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1504
When a spruce board (3.8 cm x 8.8 cm x 2.4 m) was surface-sprayed with BORA-CARETM solution (containing 23% disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and stored in an air-conditioned room (24 ± 2°C and 60 ± 5% RH) for eight months, ca. 40% of the wood (measured by the cross section surface proportion) contained borates at the rate of >2,500 ppm BAE (boric acid equivalent). In a choice bioassay, term...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


After 18 years, preservative dipping and brush treating continue to provide protection to shingles of western wood species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30156
The presence of residual preservation in dip-treated and brush-treated shingles of various species from the western United States was assessed 18 years after installation using Aspergillus bioassays. The performance of western redcedar (Thuja plicata) was compared to western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) and western larch (Larix occidentalis). Untreated shingles of a...
T C Scheffer, D J Miller, J J Morrell


Effects of pre-harvest girdling on selected properties of red pine, red maple and Eastern larch
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40137
Trees of three species - tamarack (Larix laricina), soft maple (Acer rubrum) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) - were girdled immediately below the crown,one to two years before felling. The wood from these trees was compared with wood taken from un-girdled control trees felled at the same. Sapwood and heartwood, from the controls, and from above and below the girdle of treated trees, were examined fo...
A Taylor, P A Cooper


Laboratory evaluation of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (TIM-BORÒ ) as a wood preservative or a bait-toxicant against the Formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1513
A no-choice bioassay indicated that termite feeding was significantly reduced when wood was treated with TIM-BORÒ at retentions of >3600 ppm and >900 ppm (w/w) for Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes, respectively, and thus these wood preservative retention rates may be considered for these termite species. Results of a choice bioassay suggested retention rates of 450-1800 pp...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


The Influence of Extractives on Western Redcedar’s Equilibrium Moisture Content
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40331
The high natural durability of western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn) heartwood is often attributed to the presence of the thujaplicins, which are toxic to fungi. However, sound, twenty-five year old western redcedar shakes and shingles were found to contain only traces of the thujaplicins, but significant quantities of plicatic acid (which is only weakly toxic to fungi). This suggests that factors...
R Stirling, P I Morris


Seasonal response of feeding, differentiation, and growth in the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in Wisconsin
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10604
In termites, differentiation plasticity in undifferentiated Reticulitermes progresses with growth stages from larvae to workers, which may then differentiate into soldiers, winged nymphs, or neotenics. Although studies have been done on seasonality of the termite life cycle, data appears to vary from location to location. Reticulitermes populations in Wisconsin appear to behave slightly differentl...
R A Arango, F Green III, G R Esenther


Methods for Determining the Role of Extractives in the Natural Durability of Western Redcedar Heartwood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20356
The durability of western redcedar heartwood is influenced by a number of different extractives operating by different mechanisms. In order to guide a systematic isolation of extractives with high fungal toxicity, a micro-bioassay has been developed for measuring the fungal toxicity of extractive fractions. Two additional assays quantify the anti-radical and metal chelating properties of cedar ext...
R Stirling, C R Daniels, J E Clark, P I Morris


Wood Protection by Commercial Silver Formulations against Eastern Subterranean Termites
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30422
The scope of this paper is to compare commercial formulations of aqueous products containing silver for their ability to prevent termite damage by Eastern subterranean termites in a no-choice laboratory test. Five commercial products were tested in order to explore a broad range of formulation and silver forms: colloidal, ionic and nano-particles. Southern pine wood blocks were dip treated in each...
F Green III, R A Arango


Surface Characteristics of Southern pine treated with Eastern red cedar oil
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40393
Treatment of wood with various chemicals play an important role on their surface characteristics including as roughness and hardness for further processing such as finishing and machining. The objective of this study is to evaluate surface roughness of Southern pine (Pinus taeda L.) treated with oil extracted from eastern redcedar (Juniperus viginiana L.). Both tangential and radial surfaces of...
S Hiziroglu


Effects of CCB on wood strength of Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis L.)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40416
The effects of CCB (chromate copper boron) on the static bending properties of Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis L.) based on MOE (modulus of elasticity) and MOR (modulus of rupture) were evaluated after full-cell vacuum/pressure treatment using a 3.0 % concentration followed by kiln-drying at 15 and 30 % moisture contents with heating the preservative at 30 and 40 ºC. The results showed that MOE ...
I Usta, M Hale


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