Your search resulted in 451 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service: The Environment Focus Group approach
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50162
In the context of the Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC), and of the OECD work on wood preservatives, the Environment Focus Group (EFG), comprising 8 institutes and the European Wood Preservative Manufacturers Group, has been working on the environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service. A literature review of emissions from treated timber has revealed that very little existing data...
G Deroubaix, G Labat, I Le Bayon, S Legay, P Marchal, C Yrieix, E Melcher, R-D Peek, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, W J Homan, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, E D Suttie, A J Nurmi, A-C Ritschkoff, D Rudolph, I Stephan, D Aston, E F Baines, J B Simonin
Future Directions Regarding Research on the Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood: Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood. February 8-11, 2004, FL, USA
Workshop – Research Needs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50222
This paper presents a series of documents that focus on research needs for potential future work focusing on the environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. These documents were developed through a conference sponsored by the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions (FCES), located in Gainesville, Florida. The conference was held in Orlando, Florida, February 8 – 11, 2004 and the tit...
H M Solo-Gabriele, J D Schert, T G Townsend
Experiences with environmental risk assessment within the Biocidal Products Directive
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-21
The Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC, the BPD) aims to authorize biocidal products based on risk assessment for both man and the environment. Active substances for wood preservation products and rodenticides were selected for the first list under the review program (Regulations EC 1896/2000 and EC 2032/2003) because several member states had experience with the evaluation and authorization of ...
Environmental Fate of Micronized Copper
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50310
The environmental fate of wood preservatives is an important aspect to estimate the health and environmental impact. Although biocides from treated wood may be released into the soil, water or air, the latter pathway is frequently neglected in favour of leaching studies. Nonetheless, wood dust is well known to cause a variety of adverse health effects, in particular diseases to the respiratory tra...
C Civardi, L Schlagenhauf, J Benz, C Hirsch, J Van den Bulcke, M Schubert, J Van Acker, P Wick,
Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
Surveillance médicale des personnels exposés aux produits de préservation du bois
1990 - IRG/WP 3588
An appraisal of methods for environmental testing of leachates from salt-treated wood (2)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50110
For wood preservatives for use in hazard class 4 information on the ecotoxicity of preservatives and ingredients as well as on the effect of losses from impregnated timber is needed for a proper environmental risk assessment. In the evaluation of a suitable test procedure the leaching behaviour of copper-based formulations was studied using analytical and ecotoxicological test methodology. These ...
H W Wegen, A Platen, G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens
Biocides - Efficacy assessment and doses for wood preservatives (product type 8). Local/geographical aspects. Termite control as case study
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20181
Currently, the efficacy of a wood preservative, as biocidal product type 8, is assessed as a ‚critical value' (CV), an efficient dose (retention in wood at a given depth of penetration). CVs are planned to be adapted for exposure to basic target organisms (5 hazard classes) and additional requirements concerning the occurrence of local target organisms in relation with climate, building...
Environmental exposure to wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50165
The OECD Working Group on Pesticides will hold a workshop on Assessing Environmental Exposure to Wood Preservatives within the context of its Biocides Programme (cf. IRG/WP 99-20182). In the area of risk assessment, OECD countries have given highest priority to developing guidance on how exposure assessments for biocides should be performed. Wood preservatives have been selected since most countri...
Environmental risk assessment of preservative treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-19
This paper reviews the status of the environmental risk assessment of preservative treated wood and confirms the distinction between the risks presented by wood preservatives and preservative treated wood. The paper proposes a tiered approach to risk assessment and discusses the rationale. Flowcharts are presented which summarise the tiered approach to risk assessment, show the tests required, and...
E F Baines, S J Davis
Risk assessment and the approval of wood preservatives in the United Kingdom
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-23
An approval system operates in the United Kingdom (UK) for the regulation of wood preservatives. The regulatory authority uses a risk assessment approach to evaluate how far the potential for harm to people and the environment from wood preservatives is likely to be realised in practise, and hence the controls required for products to be, used safely. The evaluation for approval purposes also take...
R M Turner
Less environmental impact of wood preservatives by considering the risk of attack in addition to the hazard class system
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-10
Hazard classes, which are standardized in Europe in EN 335, are most useful to direct chemical wood preservation towards the organisms which may attack wood in the various fields of utilisation. However, hazard only signifies the fact that an attack may occur without considering the actual risk to attack. To minimize the application of chemicals with respect of less environmental impact it is nece...
Correlation between different international standard assessment procedures with termites. Part 1: Field exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1198
Ramin treated with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA), pentachlorophenate and lindane, each at three retentions, and three other untreated timbers were assessed in the field against Coptotermes lacteus and Nasutitermes exitiosus. Replicate specimens were exposed around five mounds of each termite species over a period of five years in south-eastern Australia. The field results provided the basis for judg...
M Lenz, C D Howick, N Tamblyn, J W Creffield, M Westcott
An environmental assessment of timber treatment plants in Australia
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50124
Australian Standard AS 2843 Timber Preservation Plant Safety Code, sets the specifications for the design and operation of timber treatment plants in Australia. The Timber Preservers' Association of Australia has carried out an environmental survey of timber treatment plants throughout Australia using the operational checklist provided in Appendix C of Part 2 of the Standard. Third party ...
J Norton, K Riley
Assessment of dehydrogenase activity, fluoride content and total chromium content of soil profiles exposed to preservative treated wood within a model system
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10015
The development and prospective use of a closed model system to facilitate study of a number of indicators of environmental impact of wood preservatives laboratory conditions has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). Chemical analysis of leachate samples collected from drained soil profiles containing creosoted pole sections remedially treated with a chromated fluoride preservative indicated small incr...
G M Smith, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines
Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure...
G R Williams, J Brown
Marine exposure assessment of the natural resistance of a number of lesser known species of tropical hardwoods to teredinid and limnoriid borers
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10520
Naturally durable species of timber are used as an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures, but many species have not been evaluated for their potential for use in this environment. EN 275 specifies a 5-year test period - too long a period for screening tests to be economically viable. In this study, candidate timber species were selected for testing in the sea on the basi...
J R Williams, S M Cragg, L M S Borges, J D Icely
Environmental risk assessment of treated wood - A mesocosm study
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-8
In order to evaluate the environmental impact of treated poles, we have developed physical models (mesocosms) containing around 250 kg of natural soil and a treated pole. On the top of each mesocosm, a spraying mechanism, which can distribute ultrapure water through several nozzles, was built. On the lower part of each mesocosm, a small tank, which can contain some litres of leachate, was placed...
P Marchal, F Poly
The EWPMG proposal for the environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-09
This paper reviews the protocol prepared by the European Wood Preservative Manufacturer's Group, which could be used by an applicant for product approval under the Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, to produce a risk assessment for an active substance or product in the Product Type 8 Wood Preservatives, in support of the application. The background and scope of the protocol are reviewed...
E F Baines
Ecotoxicological behaviour of leachates from superficially treated timber as an approach for a test strategy of environmental risk assessment in wood preservation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-09
At present for wood preservatives, which in Germany are subject to the quality mark of the RAL-Gütegemeinschaft Holzschutzmittel, health and safety as well as environmental aspects are evaluated by official authorities, as BgVV (Federal Institute for Consumer Health Protection and Veterinary Medicine) and the UBA (Federal Environmental Agency). From the environmental point of view to day there a...
H W Wegen, U J Lucks
Treatment application method and CCA efficacy in Corsican pine - Assessment by serial exposure and soil burial tests
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40006
A previous report on this research (Newman and Murphy, 1992) identified possible variation in the efficacy of a CCA preservative applied to Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) dependant upon the treatment application method (Bethel, Lowry or Steam/Bethel). This paper presents further data from biological testing of CCA treated Corsican pine using serial exposure and unsterile soil techniques...
P R Newman, R J Murphy
Development of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2395
A closed model system was designed to facilitate a controlled study of the leachability and environmental fate of a remedial preservative under laboratory conditions. The elements of the model include a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section which is positioned in a representative soil profile supporting a sward of perennial ryegrass. The model will allow detailed examination of the ...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King
A methodology for the life-cycle assessment of treated timber products
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-01
Using case studies of CCA-treated motorway fenceposts and creosote-treated electricity transmission poles, the paper suggests an approach to evaluation of the overall environmental impact of treated timber products, utilising the emerging systems analysis method of life-cycle assessment (LCA). The development and application of LCA methodologies to date is reviewed and the key features identified....
S R Smith, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson
Environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives in the Netherlands
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-10
Before biocides can be introduced to the Dutch market, they have to be authorised under the Pesticides Act (1962). The criteria for authorisation of biocides have been laid down in the Dutch Decree on Environmental Requirements for the Authorisation of Pesticides Used in Fields Other than Agriculture. In 1998, the EU Biocides Directive (98/9/EC) entered into force, and it was implemented in May 20...
E Smit, P van der Zandt, J Appelman
Occupational exposure risk assessment at a commercial treatment plant using copper azole preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-15
Experience with traditional water-based preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) applied in closed system vacuum pressure impregnation plants has shown that operator atmospheric exposure is low during normal operation. TANALITH E is a commercially available copper azole wood preservative introduced as a chrome and arsenic-free alternative to CCA based on the actives copper, tebuconaz...
A S Hughes, M Connell