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Sediment toxicity study of marine piles treated with CCA-C
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-35
A study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of 10-day exposure to sediments mixed with leachate from chromated copper arsenate Type-C (CCA-C) southern pine marine piles treated to a retention of 40 kg/m³ (2.5 pcf) and untreated southern pine piles on the benthic amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. The biological endpoint used to establish effects was organism survival. Leachate obtained during a 28...
W J Baldwin, E A Pasek, P D Osborne


A hypothesis on a second non-biocidal property of wood extractives, in addition to toxicity, that affects termite behavior and mortality
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10638
While it is has long been recognized that heartwood extractives affect termite behavior, the exact cause and relationship between total extractives, extractive types, and termite resistance remains unclear. Generally, researchers have proposed that the extractives are toxic and/or repel termites. We propose, based on the well known fact that many extractives have excellent antioxidant properties...
T P Schultz, K Ragon, D D Nicholas


Antifungal activities of acetone-soluble Eusideroxylon zwageri and Potoxylon melagangai crude extracts against white rot
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30591
The development of natural wood extracts as a wood preservative is a potentially attractive prospect for the wood preservation industry. This study attempts to evaluate the toxicity of Eusideroxylon zwageri and Potoxylon melagangai extractives as potential wood preservatives. These two species are well-known as among the heaviest and very durable timbers. It has been established that natural durab...
I Jusoh, A Tida Henry, Z Assim, F Badruddin Ahmad, S Ujang


Emerging function for a glutathione transferase in response to wood extractives toxicity
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10824
The first steps of wood degradation by fungi lead to the release of toxic compounds known as extractives. To better understand how lignolytic fungi cope with these products, a transcriptomic analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium genes was performed in presence of oak acetonic extractives. The most up-regulated genes relate to nutrition, nucleic acid modification, gene regulation, signalling and ...
A Thuillier, K Chibani, A Deroy, S Dumarçay, P Gérardin, A Kohler, J-P Jacquot, E Gelhaye, M Morel-Rouhier


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also...
N Vidovic


Chemical compounds from Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora heartwood and their biological activities against wood destroying fungus (Coriolus versicolor)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30373
The chemistry analysis of the compounds present in dichloromethane and ethanolic fraction as well as bioassays enables to understand the durability differences of Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora. The principal distinction between these two species is the acidic subfraction of diterpenoic extract, which is antifungic in Eperua falcata when tested in in-vitro conditions. This study also enable...
N Amusant, C Moretti, B Richard, E Prost, J M Nuzillard, M-F Thévenon


Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6)....
D Seepe, W Metzner


Methodology challenges in developing a transfer of natural durability from sawmill residues, illustrated by experiences with white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20203
The transfer of durability-conferring extractives from durable to non-durable wood has been accomplished often, but usually as an educational exercise rather than as a commercially oriented process. In the latter environment, many factors previously overlooked become vitally important. How to study them, in the absence of well-developed methodology and given the shorter timeframes being demanded b...
M J Kennedy, M A Powell


Collaborative experiments in testing the toxicity of wood preservatives to soft rot fungi
1970 - IRG/WP 25
Eight Institutes from seven countries, Austria, England, France, Germany, Holland, Sweden and Switzerland have collaborated in an attempt to assess the suitability of various laboratory test procedures for acceptance as standard methods of determining the toxicity of wood preservatives to the cellulose-attacking micro-fungi which cause 'soft rot' of wood. Pure culture methods wit...
J G Savory, A F Bravery


Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper....
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


Surveillance médicale des personnels exposés aux produits de préservation du bois
1990 - IRG/WP 3588
J-C Aubrun


Efficacy of some extractives from Pinus heartwood for protection of Pinus radiata sapwood against biodeterioration. Part 1: Fungal decay
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30072
Chemical compounds thought to contribute to the natural durability of heartwood of Pinus spp. were either chemically synthesised in the laboratory or extracted from the heartwood of Pinus elliottii or Pinus caribaea. These compounds included the stilbenes, pinosylvin and its mono- and di-methyl ethers, and the flavonoids, pinobanksin and pinocembrin. Small blocks of Pinus radiata sapwood were impr...
M J Kennedy, J A Drysdale, J Brown


Potentialities of protein borates as low-toxic, long-term wood preservatives - Preliminary trials
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30212
Boron compounds are efficient wood preservatives, as well as safe for the mammals and environmentally acceptable. Their natural solubility allows them to treat almost any wood species, but is also the cause of their high depletion from treated timber in outside exposure. In order to reduce this leachability, potentialities of proteinic polymer networks retaining boron within the wood have been inv...
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J P Haluk


Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water: Initial PAH migration
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50201
Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models is a lack of data o...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell, J Simonsen, S T Lebow


Estimation of service life of durable timber species by accelerated decay test and fungal cellar test
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20249
Many kinds of durable wood species for outdoor uses has been imported from all over the world to Japan. However information on the natural durability of these species is not sufficient to estimate the service life of them in the climate of Japan. Highly durable species such as Jarrh, Teak, Ipe, Ekki, Selangan batu, Red wood, Western red cedar showed no significant percent mass losses by accelerate...
K Yamamoto, I Momohara


About the relations between the natural durability of some tropical species and their extractives content
1983 - IRG/WP 1208
G R Y Déon


Standardisation of tests of toxicity of preservatives to soft rot fungi
1978 - IRG/WP 2119
J G Savory


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation (Introductory letter)
1981 - IRG/WP 3184
H Willeitner


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1981 - IRG/WP 3185
H Willeitner


Autoxidation of beech condensate
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40261
Liquid effluent from steaming beech wood was studied. The effluent contains many phenolic compounds which can present a significant toxicity. The effluent was treated by oxidation was carried out at 250 rpm for 30 min with NaOH. This was followed flocculation with CaCl2 for 30 min. The influence of parameters such as pH, time of autoxidation were studied. Experimental results reveal the electrosta...
M Irmouli, J P Haluk


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 4: Evaluation of combined diffusion and toxicity
1979 - IRG/WP 2129
A large number of inorganic and organic preservatives were evaluated as potential soft rot control chemicals, by their degree of inhibition of fungal growth after allowing them to diffuse through a 6 mm thick wood slab. The tests were inoculated with wood powder from soft-rotted CCA treated poles. Pentachlorophenol was unable to diffuse quickly through the wood slab, although formulations with hex...
E W B Da Costa, O Collett


Laboratory experiments on aerial emissions from wood treated with wood stains
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-06
Due to the actual environmental interest in wood preservation, a series of experiments was carried out on the emission of biocides from treated wood. The research focussed on the volatilization of 5 biocides from boards treated with wood preservative finishes containing dichlofluanide (DCF) azaconazole (AZA), pentachlorphenol (PCP), iodopropynylbuthylcarbamate (IPCB) and tributhyltinoxide (TBTO). ...
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens


Decay resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood against brown rot
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10433
Natural decay resistance of wood is mainly restricted in the heartwood and based on wood microstructure and chemical composition. The genetic variation in the durability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood against decay and the relationship between resistance and chemical composition was studied. The laboratory tests of 6 and 8 weeks were carried out with a brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana...
H Viitanen, A M Harju, P Kainulainen, M Venäläinen


Quelques observations biologiques sur la conduite des essais de protection des bois immerges en milieu marin
1976 - IRG/WP 421
P Deschamps


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