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Recycling of used railroad ties via two-staged pyrolysis for fractionation of wood preservatives and bio-oil: pyrolytic characterization by TGA and Py-GC/MS
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50311
Creosote and copper naphthenate (CuNap) (in an oil carrier) treated railroad tie materials (crossties or sleepers) were initially heat-treated at 200 – 300 oC and subsequently pyrolyzed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to recover wood preservatives and produce a higher quality bio-oil. Preservative-desorptive temperatures at 200 a...
Pyoungchung Kim, J Lloyd, Jae-Woo Kim, N Labbe


Pyrolytic treatment of CCB treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-23
Environmental problems caused by the toxicity of metallic elements of the preservative occur when treated wood comes to end of use. In the experiment, CCB treated wood chips were pyrolysed at various temperatures and residence times and the behaviour of boron, chromium and copper was observed. The three elements are almost entirely retained in the charcoal. There is no influence of final tempera...
J F Collin, C G Jung, J M Romnée, J Delcarte


Comparative study on physical properties of four fast growing timber species of Bangladesh
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10570
Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach), Rain tree (Albizia saman), Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) and Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis) plantations are started as a fast growing timber specie from a few years back in Bangladesh. Initian objectives were to get fuel wood only from those trees, but a very positive response was found for Ghoraneem, Rain Tree, Sissoo and Akashmoni timber in the users market by c...
M M Islam, B K Dey, M O Hannan, G N M Ilias


Pyrolysis GC-MS as a tool for lignin analysis
1987 - IRG/WP 2201
Pyrolysis-GC-MS is a rapid process for analysis of rather complex organic compounds. The method has great application to petroleum shale oil and wood lignin. Small powdered samples (several mg) are placed in silica capillary tubes and rapidly heated in an inert atmosphere such as He or N2. Breakdown products of the pyrolysis are then trapped and held for an allocated time in an injector attached t...
L Doimo


Future Directions Regarding Research on the Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood: Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood. February 8-11, 2004, FL, USA Workshop – Research Needs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50222
This paper presents a series of documents that focus on research needs for potential future work focusing on the environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. These documents were developed through a conference sponsored by the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions (FCES), located in Gainesville, Florida. The conference was held in Orlando, Florida, February 8 – 11, 2004 and the tit...
H M Solo-Gabriele, J D Schert, T G Townsend


The WOODCARE project: Development of detection methods for Death watch beetle larvae and fungal decay
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20172
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English Heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and reliable detection of Death watch beetle larvae and related fungal decay in Oak. The problem with Death...
P Esser, P Van Staalduinen, A C Tas


Properties-enhanced albizzia particleboards by incorporating fungicide and insecticide in the glue
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30060
Preservative-treated particleboards were prepared by using tropical fast-growing albizzia and adding fungicides and insecticides to the adhesive-glue. the physical and biological properties of these boards were evaluated. No significant reduction in bending or internal-bond strength due to incorporation of the chemicals was detected. Treated particleboards effectively resisted attack by Coptoterme...
B Subiyanto, S Yusuf, Y Imamura, S Fushiki, T Saito, T Katuzawa


Distribution of fire retardant chemicals in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40037
Samples of Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood were treated by vacuumpressure impregnation with solutions of monammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate or a borax-boric acid mixture. A commercial saltbased fire retardant formulation was also used. After slow air drying, the treated wood samples were sub-divided and zonal analysis carried out in order to determine the grad...
A R A Malek, R J Murphy


Wood preservative potential of fractions of wood pyrolysis tar made from Japanese larch
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30102
Wood pyrolysis tar, which was discharged as a waste by-product in the production of charcoal from Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), was separated into several fractions by solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran, benzene and aqueous alkali. The fractions obtained were physico-chemically characterized and examined for wood preservative potential. This separation method compared favorably with fra...
T Suzuki, S Doi, M Yamakawa, K Yamamoto, T Watanabe, M Funaki


Fungicidal properties of wood tar being a side product of pyrolysis of previously treated wood with preservatives
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30340
The objective of the paper was to estimate the limit of the fungicidal value of wood tar being a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with creosote oil or salt preservative of the CCB type. The effectiveness of wood tar in wood protection against fungi causing brown rot and soft rot was compared to the effectiveness of creosote oil (type WEI-B). Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutio...
B Mazela, M Kielczewski, W Grzeskowiak


The relationship between basic density and liquid absorption in fast, plantation grown 8 Year Old Eucalyptus pellita and E. Urophylla
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40220
The liquid absorption characteristics of 8 year old Eucalyptus pellita and E. urophylla were studied in order to gain insight into the treatability of this young, fast grown eucalypt plantation resource. The trees were grown in an experimental plantation trial near Innisfail in northeast Queensland. The study demonstrated that average sapwood basic density in young plantation grown E. pellita a...
J Norton, A Muneri


Anti-fungal properties of pyrolytic oils derived from softwood bark
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30218
Thermal decomposition of balsam fir and white spruce mixed bark residues at 450°C and under vacuum (< 20 kPa abs.) results in high yields of pyroligneous liquors rich in phenolic content. This vacuum pyrolysis process has been scaled-up to a pyrolysis plant with a feed capacity of 3.5 t/h of softwood bark, which is the largest plant of this type in the world. The pyrolytic aqueous condensates ...
D Mourant, Dian-Qing Yang, Xiao Lu, C Roy


Evaluation of the permeability of fast grown wood species
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40042
The low natural durability of certain species of wood, implies the need for applying a protecting treatment to increase its life in service. Because of this, a knowledge of the permeability properties of the wood is desired. In this work, a simple and reliable method to evaluate the wood permeability is presented. For that, we have been used fast grown species, with low natural durability, Poplar ...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete, E Sanchez, J E Garcia de los Rios, E L Rodríguez Trobajo


Thermal decomposition behavior of CCA-treated wood for safe disposal and the safe recovery of heavy metals through pyrolysis
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50238
If we could estimate the chemical changes in heavy metals by temperature in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood during pyrolysis, it is expected that we could solve the environmental problems of heavy metals, which may occur during pyrolysis, and therefore, the thermal decomposition behavior of effective elements of CCA-treated wood was examined to find a safe disposal method. First, CCA-...
Dong Won Son, Dong-heub Lee, Sun-hae Cheon, Myung Jae Lee


Difficulties applying Heat Treatment according to ISPM No. 15, when fast growth species are used
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40386
In 2002, the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) adopted the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 15 (Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade). Two treatments are recognized: Heat Treatment (HT), in which wood must be heated to a core temperature of 56°C for 30 minutes, and fumigation with methyl bromide. As the last treatme...
O Encinas, J. I Briceño


Natural durability of fast growth plantation Eucalyptus grandis Hill, ex Maiden
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10660
One of the fast growing species cultivated in Uruguay of mayor economical importance is Eucalyptus grandis. Physical and mechanical properties of juvenile and mature wood from different regions have been deeply studied. However, since no scientific data of natural durability of this specie has been reported, natural durability of E. grandis from two sites (Rivera and Rio Negro) was evaluated. Two ...
S Böthig, A Sánchez, J Doldán


Hydrophobic characteristics of pyrolysis oil
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30458
Hydrophobic behavior of pyrolysis oils obtained by pyrolysis of Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) by using extruder type pyrolyzer at 450, 550 and 600 ºC was the objective of the study. Sapwood specimens (15×25×50 mm along the grain) were impregnated with the obtained pyrolysis oils by full- and empty cell treatment. The results indicated that wood impregnated with the studied pyrolysis o...
A Temiz, M Hakki Alma, N Terziev


A fast and economic method to produce grey wooden surfaces for decking and cladding: preliminary results
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40474
Uncoated wood is commonly used in France for cladding and decking to minimise maintenance. However wood surfaces progressively turn grey due to exposure to sunlight and water. This grey colour develops after several months depending on the wood species and the exposure: in the northern hemisphere surfaces facing south and west are most exposed and turn grey more rapidly than those facing north and...
L Podgorski, V Georges, I Garmendia, B Sánchez Sarachu


The use of thermal desorption and pyrolysis combined with a semiconductor VOC detector for the on-site detection of preservative-treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20456
The purpose of this study was twofold; to identify possible marker molecules released from preservative-treated wood upon heat treatment and then develop a prototype detector for this marker. Two methods for heating the samples were used: Pyrolysis combined with Gas-Chromatography with IR-detection and Thermal Desorption combined with Gas-Chromatography with mass detection. A first prototype detec...
I Svensson, A Gonzalez, L Irusta, Mª J Fernandez-Berridi, O Munné


Biological performance of wood treated with tar-oil recovered during slow pyrolysis of macadamia nut shells
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30523
This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of wood treated with tar oil obtained from a commercial pyrolysis process of macadamia nut shells. Vacuum-treated pine wood specimens were subjected to various brown and white rot fungi based on the soil-block test method specified by the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) after leaching process. Treated specimens were also subjected to th...
S Nami Kartal, E Terzi, C Kose, J Hofmeyr, Y Imamura


Utilization of thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS to characterize volatiles formation kinetics during wood thermodegradation
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40587
Identification of volatile degradation products produced during wood mild pyrolysis is important to have better insight on thermodegradation mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS is an attractive tool to characterize and quantify products formed during wood thermodegradation indicating an higher susceptibility of hardwoods to thermodegradation compare to so...
K Candelier, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Kamdem, P Gérardin


Relationships between heat treatment intensity and some conferred properties of different European softwood and hardwood species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40593
Effect of treatment intensity on conferred properties like elemental composition, durability, anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of different European softwood and hardwood species subjected to mild pyrolysis at 230°C under nitrogen for different durations has been investigated. Independently of the wood species studied, elemental composition is strongly correl...
M Chaouch, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin


Effects of Bio-oil Obtained from Laurel (Laurus nobilis) Residues on Biological, Physical, and Mechanical Properties of Treated Wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30692
In this study, the effects of bio-oil obtained from Laurel (Laurus nobilis) residues on biological (decay, insect, termite resistance), physical (water absorption, tangential and radial swelling), and mechanical properties (MOE, MOR and CSPG) of treated wood samples were studied. The bio-oil used in this paper was produced by the help of fixed bed reactor type pyrolyzer. GC/MS analysis showed that...
S Akbas, A Temiz, N Terziev, M H Alma, S Palanti, E Feci


How intraspecific radial variability of the European Oak’s may influence mild pyrolysis process and durability of the material
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40725
Last decades wood is promoted as building material. Unprotected wood exposed to outdoor conditions undergoes a variety of degradation induced essentially by fungi attacks. Heat treatment of wood by mild pyrolysis (180°C T 240°C under inert atmosphere) is a preservation process with a weak environmental impact, and therefore, is viewed as an interesting alternative to the chemical impregnation me...
J Hamada, A Pétrissans, F Mothe, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin


Chemical composition and performances of slow pyrolysis by-product from sugarcane bagasse for wood protection
2020 - IRG/WP 20-30752
Pyrolysis distillate or bio-oil, a by-product of biomasses’ slow pyrolysis in the char-making process, has been traditionally used as bio-pesticides by Asian farmers. Due to its large composition of bio-active chemicals, bio-oil obtained from various biomass has become of interest in many applications, including wood protectants. This study aims to characterize the chemical composition of bio-oi...
F D Boer, M-F Thévenon, J-M Commandre, M Fournier