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Your search resulted in 241 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden poles
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40263
The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the finite element method and finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are pres...
K Krabbenhøft, P Hoffmeyer, C G Bechgaard, L Damkilde


A Comparison of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Floor Panels using Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Fire Testing
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40955
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new timber product and has gained popularity in North America and Europe as a construction material. As a sustainable engineered timber product, CLT offers many advantages over solid wood, concrete, or steel construction. However, the use of timber in medium to high rise buildings is often avoided mainly due to its combustible nature. In this paper, a n...
M Yasir, A Macilwraith, K Ruane


Finite Element Modelling of the Checking of Wood Exposed to Accelerated Weathering
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20459
The surface checking that develops when wood is exposed to the weather reduces the visual appeal of treated wood products and can reduce the effectiveness of preservative treatments. There is strong interest in developing solutions to this problem and also a growing realization that such solutions may evolve from a deeper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for surface checking. In this pa...
S G Ribarits, P D Evans


Analysis of tebuconazole in wood treated with Tanalith™ E
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20158
A simple gas chromatographic method for determining tebuconazole in Tanalith™ E treated wood is described. A two step sequential extraction procedure with methanol was used. Sample extracts were analysed without cleanup or concentration using capillary column GC with thermionic specific detection. The performance of the method was assessed using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood, radiata pine...
D E Ferlazzo


The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of ...
P Esser, J Cramer


Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund


Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preserv...
H J Petrowitz


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, ...
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bambo...
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam


Detection of defects in standing poles by X-ray techniques
1980 - IRG/WP 2132
The application of X-ray techniques to wood pole inspection procedures has been evaluated. Internal defects were accurately identified using X-ray inspection methods. These methods and their possible influence on the safety and economic aspects of wood pale utilization are discussed....
W D Gardner, R S Johnstone, W Pitt


Conforming to european standards for preservative-treated timber: Specifying with confidence
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20194
A four-year collaborative study between four industrial partners and BRE has assessed timber treated by current UK industrial practices in the light of current European Standards. Data were collected for CCA and creosote treated timber components, and compared with the requirements laid out in EN351-1 and -2. A number of difficulties were encountered that have been described in previous IRG papers...
E D Suttie, R J Orsler


Quantitative determination of Chromium: A comparison of three instruments
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50053
A comparison is made between three instruments for measuring levels of chromium in the leachate of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated timber. These include an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer and the RQflexâ. The RQflexâ is a new hand-held instrument which measures chromium by dipping a ReflectoquantÒ strip into the leachate and inserting the stri...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organis...
G R Williams


Collaborative field experiment: Analysis of copper and chromium in stakes of the four reference timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 3213
The stakes analysed belong to the Swedish set of the four reference timbers of the collaborative field experiment (Document No: IRG/WP/367). Before the field exposure 60 mm were cut off the end of each stake. This was done in order to be able to carry out chemical analyses as well as different types of testing. Some of the material has been used in softrot tests (Document No: IRG/WP/1151)....
T Nilsson


Collaborative soft rot tests: 2nd interim report
1975 - IRG/WP 258
J G Savory, J K Carey


A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 322
H Alliot


X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
H Greaves


Comparative studies on the distribution of lignin and CCA elements in birch using electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis
1987 - IRG/WP 1328
The microdistribution of metal preservatives in treated wood has received considerable research over the last two decades. Despite this, little effort seems to have been made to try and correlate the distribution of CCA elements with respect to naturally occurring wood cell wall components in wood. In the present preliminary study an attempt is made to relate the distribution of lignin in-situ wit...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural and TEM-EDAX studies on the degradation of CCA treated radiata pine by tunnelling bacteria
1985 - IRG/WP 1260
An ultrastructural study was carried out on bacterial attacked Pinus radiata stakes treated with a high level (24.7 kg/m³) of Tanalith NCA preservative. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the organism possessed intracellular and/or extracellular detoxification mechanisms in order to overcome the high levels of copper, chrome and arsenic present within the wood fibre walls. ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Moulds and indoor climate in Denmark
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10488
Just like in many other countries after the oil crisis in 1972 Danish houses were tightened with the result that the relative air humidity rose considerably. The Ministry of Energy also demanded a lowering of the indoor temperature from 25°C to 20°C with the result that the relative air humidity rose even more. According to the latest survey 10% of Danish buildings are infected with moulds. Moul...
J Bech-Andersen, S A Elborne


Bibliographie sur les produits organiques en solvant pour la préservation du bois
1971 - IRG/WP 38
H Alliot


Exposure monitoring of creosote vapors
1989 - IRG/WP 3511
Creosote oils contain hundreds of compounds. During impregnation and handling of treated wood the main component in the vapors released in air is naphthalene. Other main components are alkyl naphthalenes, indene, phenol and its methyl derivatives, benzothiophene, diphenyl, acenaphthalene and fluorene. In the measurement of creosote vapors, naphthalene can be used as an indicator agent. One of the ...
P Heikkilä, M Loutamo, V Riihimäki, M Romo


How best to specify retentions of preservative treatments: kg/m3 or % (m/m)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20151
When specifying treatments according to the European Standard EN 351-1, retentions in the analytical zone are based on the amount of product found to be effective in biological tests; this is expressed in terms of the retention of the product per unit volume (kg/m3) for penetrating treatments and per unit area (g/m2) for superficial treatments. However, to check whether the retentions have been ac...
J K Carey


Analysis of creosote posts after 40 years of exposure
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50035
In the early 1950s The Western European Institute for Wood Preservation (WEI) started a program for testing creosote and salt treated posts in three exposure sites in Europe. Of these only the site in Simlångsdalen in south western Sweden remains today. The purpose with this investigation was to demonstrate which creosote components are still retained in the posts after 40 years of exposure and w...
G Bergqvist, S Holmroos


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