IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 66 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker


Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz


Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. Untreated and treated wood with all combinations were subjected to oxygen index test according to ASTM D 2863-91 and thermal analysis. Results were evaluated in terms of improvement of fire retarding performances of wood by sole or combination treatments.
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara


Absorption of inorganic salts solutions. Retentions of inorganic salts. Fire retardants
1990 - IRG/WP 3625
The study aims evaluated the impregnation capacity using fire retardants on woods with differents densities. At the same time, impregnation with several fire retardant salts were carried out in order to obtain their absortion and retention in wood.
A Garcia, J Navarro


Bibliography: Interactions of wood preservatives with wood, metals, glues, paints and concretes
1983 - IRG/WP 3271
H Becker


Wood preservation in China
1989 - IRG/WP 3546
Huiming Zhou, Zhongwei Jin


Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry


Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more consistent MOR and MOE values. FRT plywood has a better width factor value than the two OSB sample groups tested in this study.
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi


Evaluation of the fire retardant efficacy and leach resistance of an amino resin fire retardant - Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3260
The Early Fire Hazard Indices of untreated Pinus radiata were determined by testing to Australian Standard 1530, Part 3 - 1976. Differences in the performance of heartwood and sapwood were noted, with heartwood samples giving higher Ignitability, Heat Evolved and Spread of Flame indices. The treatability of Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H was assessed, and backsawn sapwood treated more effectively than all other combinations of direction of cut and sapwood/heartwood. Treatment of kiln dried DAR Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H did not produce dimensional changes of practical significance. This factor, plus a high concentration gradient of retardant in the treated timber, make it an ideal treatment for fully machined and profiled Pinus radiata. The leach resistance of the retardant was assessed. A greater percentage of phosphorus than nitrogen was leached, but the retardant remaining after leaching conferred similar protection to the unleached material at equivalent rententions. Pyrogard H is an effective leach resistant fire retardant for Pinus radiata.
W D Gardner, P N Alexiou, P Lind, D Butler


Serviceability modeling-Predicting and extending the useful service life of FRT-plywood roof sheathing
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20210
One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of America (PATH 1999). Research programs throughout North America are increasingly focusing on understanding and defining the salient issues of wood durability and by maintaining and extending the serviceability of these existing wood structures. This report presents the findings and implications of a major 10-year research program carried on at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory. This research program developed serviceability models for fire-retardant (FR)-treated plywood roof sheathing exposed to elevated in-service temperatures and experiencing thermal degrade. FR-treated plywood roof sheathing is often required by U.S. Building Codes in roof systems for multifamily dwellings having common property walls. This 10-year research program found many important facts. Qualitatively, the mechanism of thermal degrade in FR-treated plywood was acid-hydrolysis. The magnitude of strength loss could be cumulatively related to FR chemistry, thermal exposure during pre-treatment, treatment, and post-treatment processing and in-service exposure. The effects of FR chemistry could be mitigated by use of pH buffers. The strength effects were similar for many levels of plywood quality. Quantitatively, a kinetics-based approach could be used to predict strength loss based on its time-temperature history. This research program then developed models with which to assess current condition, predict future hazard based on past service life, and then predict residual serviceability of untreated and FR-treated plywood used as structural roof sheathing. Each of these findings is briefly described in this report. There are many opportunities for extending the useful service life of wood by better maintenance, remedial treatment, or enhanced serviceability assessment to predict both residual strength and residual utility. Results of research programs such as this can be used to extend service-life by providing the engineer with a estimate of residual serviceability and thereby avoiding premature removal. Many of the concepts employed in the development of these FR-plywood serviceability models are directly applicable to the development of predictive durability models for wood as affected by decay. When such a durability-based service-life model is developed, that serviceability model will aid building code officials, regulators, contractors, and engineers in determining replacement time schedules for wood undergoing biological attack.
J E Winandy


Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excellent fire resistance and good physic-mechanical properties. Besides formaldehyde released from WFR panels was very low.
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying


Distribution of fire retardant chemicals in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40037
Samples of Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood were treated by vacuumpressure impregnation with solutions of monammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate or a borax-boric acid mixture. A commercial saltbased fire retardant formulation was also used. After slow air drying, the treated wood samples were sub-divided and zonal analysis carried out in order to determine the gradients of chemical retention form surface to core. Steep gradients of fire retardant chemicals were found irrespective of formulation. In a pyrolysis study, the amount of residue after pyrolysis at 550°C was proportional to the retention gradients of the fire retardant chemicals being greatest in the surface zones and least in the core of the samples.
A R A Malek, R J Murphy


Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu


Bibliography on the use of boron compounds for the preservation of wood
1973 - IRG/WP 315
This bibliography is based on an earlier literature survey prepared by J. Thornton and Wm. E. Bruce (O.E.C.D. Document No. 27/DAS/CSI/M/91) which was enlarged and revised for a meeting in Paris in October 1968 (Document 27/DAS/CSI/M554) by Professor W. Bavendamm of Reinbek. The latter (1968) document with its 166 references has now been extended and brought up to date. Acknowledgments are due to Borax Consolidated Ltd. and to the New Zealand Forest Research Institute who have both helped by providing us with further compilations of their own. Boron compounds have been in use in the past and are still found useful in medicine in the form of boric acid solutions and boracic ointment. They have also been used for the conservation of foodstuffs. In the treatment of wood they were first mostly used as fire retardants. Since the Second World War they have become increasingly important in the field of wood preservation.
R Cockcroft, J F Levy


Wood preservation in Japan
1982 - IRG/WP 3218
The report indicates the importance of wood preservation in Japan, which is the world's largest importer. The main hazards of timber are listed, fungi, insects and marine borers. Besides wood preservation fire protection treatments are also important in Japan. Classifications are given of the durability and treatability of the timbers used. In describing the wood preservation industry, the amounts of preservatives used and the volume of the various wooden commodities that have been treated during the past 25 years are detailed. The various Japanese Standards that are used for wood preservation treatments are listed, and the performance and quality requirements of the main ones indicated. The report lists all the organizations which are concerned with wood preservation, including those concerned with research into timber deterioration and wood protection, and adds some other organizations of general interest. It is concluded that the future of the industry appears to be bright. The report ends with an Appendix giving detailed information of the wood preservation plants in Japan, 174 pressure plants and 50 other kind. Some Tables regarding fires and fire tests have been added. A list of 32 references is included.
S Amemiya, R Cockcroft


A study on insect pests and preservation of fire-damaged timbers in Da Xing An Ling forest region
1991 - IRG/WP 1499
Investigated insect pest of timbers of Da Xing An Ling forest region by means of sampling inspection. Meanwhile we had researched insects pest situation, regularity occurred and biological nature for fire damaged timbers attacked in the log yard. The results showed that the mainly insect species are small black-marmorated longicorn (Monochamus sutor L). We had eagaged in various small tests of timber preservation such as: underwater storage, brushing, spraying and fumigation. The results showed that the fumigant treatment was successful. By means of medium-sized tests of fumigant treatment many times. We had obtained the ideal fumigant and the amount of treatment as well as period of treatment.
Lu Wenda, Li Jian, Shao Jing Wen, Liu Yixing, Cui Yongzhi


Influence of Acetylation on Fire Resistance of Beech Plywood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40326
Influence of acetylation on fire resistance was studied in beech plywood. Beech layers were acetylated in a reactor with acetic anhydride at 120ºC for varying durations. Plywoods were made from the acetylated layers and directly exposed to burning flame from their edges for 60s according to ISO 11925-3. Ignition and glowing time were measured in samples. Results were analyzed statistically based on a complete randomized design to determine effect of the acetylation on fire resistance. Results indicated that the acetylation affects ignition and glowing in plywood. Ignition time was increased due to raised weight percent gains and glowing was decreased instead. The acetylated plywood was burning with short blue flames; while flame was long and yellowish in non-acetylated one. This study revealed that the acetylation retards slightly fire in plywood; however it does not resist wood against fire.
B Mohebby, A Talaii, A Karimi , S Kazemi Najafi


Effect of fire retardants (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate, mixture of monoammonium phosphate and borax and ammonium sulphate) on beech wood with dipping and Lowry methods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40350
In this study, the possibilities of using four kinds of chemicals as fire retardants with 12% concentration for beechwood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was surveyed. Providing testing samples that are related to the measurement of fire resistance properties according to JIS A-1321-1975 standard were evaluated. Wood samples were impregnated with Lowry and dipping methods. In this study, samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate by Lowry method had the best fire resistance properties. Wood samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate had the highest compression parallel to grain and highest resistance of hardness and samples impregnated by ammonium sulphate had the least total shrinking.
M Akhtari, D Parsapajouh, M Arefkhani


Effect of fire retardants (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate, mixture of monoammonium phosphate and borax and ammonium sulphate) on beech wood with dipping and Lowry methods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40350
In this study, the possibilities of using four kinds of chemicals as fire retardants with 12% concentration for beechwood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was surveyed. Providing testing samples that are related to the measurement of fire resistance properties according to JIS A-1321-1975 standard were evaluated. Wood samples were impregnated with Lowry and dipping methods. In this study, samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate by Lowry method had the best fire resistance properties. Wood samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate had the highest compression parallel to grain and highest resistance of hardness and samples impregnated by ammonium sulphate had the least total shrinking.
M Akhtari, D Parsapajouh, M Arefkhani


Fire, flame resistance and thermal properties of oil thermally-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40361
Oil thermal treatment, first developed by German scientists, is a promising technology for improving the durability and dimensional stability of wood for outdoor above-ground residential uses such as siding and shingles. The present authors’ previous research showed that 220ºC is an optimal treatment temperature, with 2 hours’ treatment producing wood with significantly improved moisture and biological resistance. This paper mainly deals with the preliminary investigation into fire, flame resistance and related thermal properties of such thermally modified wood. Slack wax and soybean oil were used as heating media for treatment at 220 ºC. Small-scale fire and flame resistance tests including the crib test and the two-foot tunnel test, were carried out. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) were also used to investigate the corresponding thermal properties. The results indicated that the oil-thermal treatment reduced the flame resistance, as a result of the oil or wax residue in wood surface, and wax absorbed by wood during the high-temperature treatment may facilitate extra heat evolution during thermal decomposition in air. However, in general, oil thermally-treated wood, especially soybean oil-treated wood, did not reduce the fire resistance of wood or affect the thermal properties of wood significantly.
Jieying Wang, P Cooper


Fire Safety of Wood Floor Assembly: Model and Full-scale Test
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20375
The present paper describes the model for the prediction of fire safety of wood floor assemblies. The model includes heat transfer model for the calculation of the flow of heat in floor assembly and structural model for the analysis of the mechanical performance of wood joists. The floor assemblies considered in this paper are constructed with nominal 2x10 (38x241mm) wood joists lined by Type X (or Type C) gypsum board (12.7mm or 15.9mm thickness, one layer or two layers) as a ceiling membrane, and 15.9mm thick plywood as a sub-floor. The heat transfer model employed two-dimensional heat conduction equation to predict the temperatures in the ceiling (gypsum board), wood joists and sub-floor (plywood) in the floor assembly, when the ceiling is exposed to fire. The structural model, using the temperature distribution in the joists predicted from the heat transfer model, calculated strength of the joists and deflection of joists based on the modulus of elasticity, moment of inertia and rigidity of joists to examine the mechanical performance of floor / ceiling assemblies. The results from the computer model were compared to the results from the full-scale tests. Reasonably good agreement was observed between the results from the model and those from the tests.
H Takeda


Bi-oleothermal treatment of wood at atmospheric pressure: resistance to fungi and insects, resistance to weathering and reaction to fire results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40418
Bi-oleothermal process is a simple treatment which has been developped by CIRAD in cooperation with FCBA. It allows a deep impregnation of wood with hydrophobic products using cheap facilities. The process includes two steps at atmospheric pressure. The first one is a dipping of wood samples in a hot oil bath (between 110 °C and 200°C) which creates an overpressure inside the wood. The second one is also a dipping in a oil bath but at a lower temperature (20°C to 80°C). In this second bath samples cooling leads to water condensation. A vacuum is created inside the samples and makes the oil to impregnate the wood. In this study, this process has been used to impregnate several wood species with several linseed oils with and without biocides. The resistance to wood destroying fungi has been assessed using a method adapted from EN 113. Results show that the linseed oils lead to an increase in the natural durability. The resistance to termites and to house longhorn beetles has been assessed using EN 117 and EN 47 respectively. Wood treated with biocide-free oil is attacked by termites but afterwards the oil induces the death of the insects. The addition of biocide makes the wood completely protected from termites attacks. EN 47 results show that 93% of mortality amongst the beetles is obtained with the biocide-free oil and 100% with the oil including biocide. The resistance of the treatment to weather has been studied using artificial weathering test according to EN 927-6. Results show that the coating provided by this process constitutes a low performing product compared to conventional stains. However the coatability with a solventborne or a waterborne stain is ensured and leads to good performance after artificial weathering. The influence of the oil treatment on wood exposed to fire was studied on oil treated samples and on samples which were fireproofed and then oil treated. EN ISO 11925-2 tests show the oil treated samples do not pass the test and have a fire classification of F. However samples that have been fireproofed and then impregnated with the linseed oil pass the test and a fire classification of E is obtained. These results were completed with EN 13823 tests. Samples that were fireproofed then oil treated fulfill the C fire classificiation requirements.
L Podgorski, I Le Bayon, I Paulmier, J-D Lanvin, V Georges, D Grenier, H Baillères, J-M Méot


Surface color and roughness characteristics of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels treated with fire retardants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40420
The objective of this study was to determine surface characteristics and color change properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated by fire retardants (FR) with 10% concentration. Experimental panels were made using by melamine ureaformaldehyde (MUF) adhesive having 10%, 15%, 20% of melamine. The surface properties of the samples were determined using a fine stylus technique. Three roughness parameters, namely average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) were determined from the surface of the samples. Color change properties of MDF samples were evaluated to CIE L*a*b* methods by a spectrophotometer (Minolta CM-2600d). It was found that the surface roughness values of the FR treated MDF panels were higher than those of control panels. The highest surface roughness values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+BA+NPB, MAF+BA+BX, the lowest values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+AL. Also surface roughness of the MDF panels improved with increasing melamine additive rate in the MUF adhesive. According to CIEL*a*b method, color change properties of the samples showed variation as function of chemicals type. Especially, while the highest color change(?E) were determined for MDF samples treated with MINPB and MAF+BA+NPB, the lowest color change (?E) were obtained from MDF samples treated with MAF+AL, MIN.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, S Hiziroglu


Laboratory and field exposures of FRT plywood: Part 1. Physical test data
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40426
Our understanding of the laboratory induced degradation with fire retardant systems is currently limited since we are unable to correlate laboratory steady-state experiments with actual in-service field degradation. Current model studies have generally been limited to isothermal rate studies with selected model FR chemicals. Other factors also play a major role in the degradation of FR-treated wood. These factors, which have not been studied in any detail, include relative humidity/moisture content cycles and thermally-induced evolution of ammonia from ammonium phosphates to give phosphoric acid. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between laboratory and field results based on strength-temperature-relative humidity (moisture content)-FR chemical interactions. The impact of the variables was evaluated by measuring bending strength properties and comparing matched laboratory and field exposure samples. In this first paper, the physical test data show the positive effects of adding a buffering system to model FR compounds when exposed to high moisture environments and the negative effects of increasing the moisture in the in-service environment during exposure.
H M Barnes, J E Winandy, C R McIntyre


Next Page