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Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Comparative study on physical properties of four fast growing timber species of Bangladesh
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10570
Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach), Rain tree (Albizia saman), Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) and Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis) plantations are started as a fast growing timber specie from a few years back in Bangladesh. Initian objectives were to get fuel wood only from those trees, but a very positive response was found for Ghoraneem, Rain Tree, Sissoo and Akashmoni timber in the users market by cutting the trees and therefore maintaining its rotation period. The timber of these trees also attracted the furniture makers as well as general users due to its grain, texture, colour, availability and low-cost which helped to boost the commercial value of the species. This popularity and high demand of Ghoraneem, Rain Tree, Sissoo and Akashmoni timber in the market encouraged to carry out a comparative study on the physical properties of these fast growing species. The wood samples from three different heights for every individual test have been collected and their respective physical properties such as shrinkage, density and moisture content were examined to make a comparison. Ghoraneem, Rain Tree, Sissoo and Akashmoni trees showed significant difference in respect of tangential and radial shrinkage, respectively. Rain tree showed the lowest volumetric shrinkage (7,517%) and Akashmoni the highest (13,66%). Tangential, radial and longitudinal shrinkage didn’t differ significantly among the top, middle and bottom sections of a particular quality of wood. Density also differed significantly among the species. Sissoo showed the highest density (0.74 g/cm3) when compared to the others.
M M Islam, B K Dey, M O Hannan, G N M Ilias


Boron treatment methods for lyctid susceptible hardwoods growing in Tasmania
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30168
A survey of existing boron plants that treat to protect hardwoods from attack by lyctids in Australia showed that hot and cold bath, and vacuum pressure impregnation (vpi), were the two most common methods employed. In experimental work, two of the treatment methods, vpi and dip diffusion, were used to treat seasoned and green messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua) and blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The treating solution in both cases was Diffusol. For vpi treatment, a solution of 2.5% boric acid equivalent (BAE) was used to treat rough sawn boards with a Bethell schedule. After treatment, boards were strip stacked on a pallet under cover, later cut in half, and the centres sprayed with turmeric reagent to reveal that all sapwood was adequately treated with boron. The solution for dip diffusion contained 12% BAE. Block stacked timber was dipped, wrapped, and stored to allow diffusion of the boron. All green E. obliqua and A. melanoxylon boards were adequately treated after dipping in Diffusol and two, four or six weeks diffusion. Some of the air dried A. melanoxylon boards could not be adequately treated by this method when diffusion periods were just two or four weeks. However, a six week diffusion period allowed full sapwood treatment of all boards.
L J Cookson, D Scown, K McCarthy


The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz


Properties-enhanced albizzia particleboards by incorporating fungicide and insecticide in the glue
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30060
Preservative-treated particleboards were prepared by using tropical fast-growing albizzia and adding fungicides and insecticides to the adhesive-glue. the physical and biological properties of these boards were evaluated. No significant reduction in bending or internal-bond strength due to incorporation of the chemicals was detected. Treated particleboards effectively resisted attack by Coptotermes formosanus at an active ingredient (a.i.) retention of less than 0.5 kg/m³ for chlorpyrifos, dichlorophenthion and propetanphos in laboratory tests. Although decay was unaffected by incorporating the mixed preservative at the retention levels in this study, boards which contained IF-1000 as a fungicide an an a.i. retention of more than 1.0 kg/m³ showed the possibility of decay resistance.
B Subiyanto, S Yusuf, Y Imamura, S Fushiki, T Saito, T Katuzawa


Alkaline building materials and controlled moisture conditions as causes for dry rot Serpula lacrymans growing only in houses
1985 - IRG/WP 1272
Dry rot Serpula lacrymans ( Fr.) S.F. Gray is commonly found in houses, though never with certainly in nature, like other wood destroying fungi which grow both indoors and outdoors. In investigating series of dry rot instances it was shown that this fungus is always found in covered places, close to a moisture source, the distance being from 0 a maximum of 600 cm. Owing to the dry rot has been able to humidfy woodwork to the optimum condition of 20-30% wood humidity, while a lethal water content of 55% would be reached outdoors. At the same time the close presence of alkaline building materials, such as mortar, a clay layer, plaster or concrete has been observed in all instances, the average distance being from 0-100 cm. By neutralizing the dry rot fungus large production of oxalic acid the alkaline materials are able to adjust the pH to optimum levels. These two conditions are the reason why the dry rot fungus only occurs in houses.
J Bech-Andersen


Uptake of copper by mycelium of wood decay fungi growing on copper S-substituted thioglycolate containing nutrient media
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10291
Mycelia of Trametes versicolor, Coniophora puteana and Poria monticola were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media, containing various concentrations of copper N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamoylacetate (which may be regarded as a copper S-substituted thioglycolate). The tested copper compound revealed relatively low fungicidal activity. After 13-18 day growing period, we determined concentrations of absorbed copper in the isolated mycelia by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Contents of copper in mycelia were the highest at the highest two concentrations of S-substituted thioglycolate and reached the value of 150 µg/g of mycelium of Trametes versicolor and 370 µg/g in the case of Coniophora puteana. On the other hand, uptake of copper by Poria monticola was lower - only up to 40 µg/g.
M Humar, M Petric, F Pohleven, P Kalan


Comparison of bluestain fungi growing in vitro and in vivo
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10149
Both moulds and bluestain fungi cause serious economic losses for forestry and timber processing industries and much research is aimed at finding environmentally and economically acceptable methods of control. It is especially important to study the growth of these fungi in freshly cut wood, which has been unaltered by drying or sterilisation, and which therefore resembles the substratum they would normally invade under natural field conditions. To meet this objective the growth of six sapstain fungi was compared at 20°C in freshly cut pine billets and on three types of artificial media (MEA, TWA and Pine Sapwood agar). The fungi comprised Ceratocystis coerulescens, Leptographium wingfieldii, Ophiostoma minus, Ophiostoma piceae, Potebniamyces coniferarum and Sphaeropsis sapinea. The six species varied markedly in their linear growth rate on agar media. In pine billets, they extended at different rates in longitudinal, radial and tangential directions, showing different pathogenic ability, patterns of colonisation and capacity to stain wood or kill bark. Some species appeared to be 'xylem preferring' while others appeared to colonise the phloem tissue more readily. Interestingly, the growth of Ceratocystis coerulescens in pine billets was more then two times faster than on MEA, suggesting it was strongly stimulated by the living pine tissue. In addition, there was an indication that the fungi grew more slowly in logs cut in January than in the summer.
A Uzunovic, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


Chapter 8 - Episode of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-08
In this chapter 7 (seven) poems entitled “The Bamboo’s Preface”, “The Bamboo’s Interim”, “The Fast Growing Grass”, “The Wild Grasses”, “The Bamboo’s Episode”, “The Bamboo’s Outlook”, “The Commitment” have been composed based on the habit, nature, introduction, properties, values, outlooks, importance, uses and melodies of bamboos in Asia. The conservation and preservation of bamboos have been emphasized through descriptive foot notes, commitment and showing possible ways how to preserve them. These poems were published earlier in author’s environmental book entitled “The Melodious Earth and Her Environmental Rules”.
A K Lahiry


Molecular investigation of Postia placenta growing in modified wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10756
Brown rot is the most common and destructive type of fungal decay for wood in service. These fungi depolymerize preferentially the structural carbohydrates, cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell wall leaving oxidized lignin behind. Modified wood can provide protection against a variety of wood deteriorating organisms, including decay fungi. However, there is still little known about the mode of function of the different wood modifications concerning the decay resistance. The biochemical mechanisms and gene products induced in brown rot during growth in modified wood are poorly understood. In this paper the data collected from mass loss studies and qPCR and qRT-PCR were used for profiling growth dynamics and gene expression of the brown rot fungus Postia placenta in different wood substrates through different stages of decay. Pinus sylvestris (L.) sapwood was used for the following treatments and modifications: chromated copper arsenate CCA (0.67%), furfurylation (WPG 37), thermal modification (D212) and acetylation (WPG 23). Untreated Pinus sylvestris (L.) sapwood was used as control. Samples were taken at different time intervals from 2 to 26 weeks. The highest mass loss and the highest fungal DNA content were found in the control samples while acetylated wood had the lowest mass loss and fungal DNA content. These results reflect a close relation of mass loss and fungal DNA content, both reflecting the amount of Postia placenta decaying the samples. Generally, expression of the investigated genes was highest in CCA treated wood. In the beginning of the incubation of all treated wood samples, the genes coding for oxidative metabolic activity had higher expression levels than the untreated control. In the end of the incubation most of these genes were less expressed than in the untreated control. The genes used for carbohydrate metabolism and the alcohol oxidase showed a significant decrease after 14 weeks of incubation. At the same time an increase in gene expression of an enzyme putative involved in lignin decomposition was detected.
B Schmöllerl, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal, M Westin, A Steitz