Your search resulted in 220 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Leaching Characteristics of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30316
The leaching characteristics of copper in copper treated bamboo and other wood species such as slash pine and poplar has been conducted in this paper according to AWPA M11-87 standard, the result indicates that: --Copper fixation rate of salts from organic acids such as citrate and oxalate and malate is less than other non-organic acid formulations. --Copper fixation rate of oven-dried bamboo sa...
Mingliang Jiang, Junliang Liu, Daochun Qin, Yamei Wang, Zehui Jiang
Leaching and fixation characteristics of chrome-copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) treated wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30096
The leaching characteristics of radiata pine sapwood blocks treated with CCFZ were evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. The rate of fixation of the preservative components in CCFZ treated radiata pine were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. Both leaching and fixation characteristics of CCFZ were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood sample...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Jong-Bum Ra
Fixation and leaching characteristics of Douglas-fir treated with CCA-C
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50213
Fixation and leaching characteristics of CCA-treated Douglas-fir was evaluated using the expressate method and the AWPA E11-97 leaching procedure. CCA fixation, as monitored by the chromium reduction, was much faster in heartwood than in sapwood; however, copper and arsenic fixation in heartwood appeared to be incomplete regardless of the extension of fixation time. This poor fixation of copper a...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Yun-Sang Song, Dong-heub Lee
Fixation and leaching characteristics of Malaysian tropical hardwoods treated with CCA-C
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50289
The fixation and leaching characteristics of 8 Malaysian tropical hardwood (MTH) species treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) wood preservative were examined. The species evaluated were Acacia (Acacia mangium), Bintangor (Calophyllum sp.), Geronggang (Cratoxylon arborescens), Medang (Litsea sp.), Meranti rambai daun (Shorea acuminata), Putat (Planchonia sp.), Ramin (Gonystylus sp.) and S...
S Salim, S Shahomlail, Z Ashaari, Yong-Seok Choi, Gyu-Hyeok Kim
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the ge...
Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with he...
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick
Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt
Some characteristics of Pinus radiata wood from trees subjected to resin extraction
1987 - IRG/WP 3403
35 year old Pinus radiata trees growing in La Puntilla (lat. 37° south, long. 72,4° west), Chile, were subjected to resin extraction 5 years ago. After harvesting them simultaneously with control trees of the same place and age, probes were taken from the bottom of each pole, at 3.4 m, 7.8 m and 11.4 m height. Analysis of ethanol/benzene extract, CCA salt penetration tests and sapstain and brown-rot development rate were performed. The extract content differed in both groups. In the ascendent sense it decreases in unextracted trees and increases in extracted. CCA salt penetration was deeper in treated trees than in untreated. Wood subjectect to resin extraction was less susceptible to sapstain development. No significant difference was detected in both groups in relation to the development of brown-rot.
M C Rose, J Navarrete, G Sandoval, A Bedoya, L Ortega, R Zurita
The most important characteristics of some species of the genus Hypoxylon found in Serbia, Yugoslavia
1977 - IRG/WP 165
The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slice...
A K Lahiry
Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged ...
Assessment of losses of wood preservatives from treated wood by leaching into the environment
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-13
Wood preservative chemicals may be lost from treated timber by leaching into water or soil. The degree to which this might occur and its effect on the environment is difficult to assess quantitatively due to the absence of appropriate test methods. This paper describes work to assess test methodology capable of allowing the rates of loss of wood preservative from treated timber to be quantified. T...
R J Orsler, G E Holland
Some physiological characteristics of a non-degradative strain of Postia (=Poria) placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1341
The decay capacity of 14 strains of the brown-rot fungus Postia (= Poria) placenta was determined using soil-wood block tests. One isolate was identified as being unable to degrade wood and was determined to be monokaryotic. It retained the ability to produce extracellular carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, although regulation of certain enzymes was atypical under certain cultural conditions. It prod...
J A Micales, T L Highley
nvestigation of anomalous fixation and leaching of CCA-treated red maple
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30341
The fixation of CCA-C preservative was investigated in red maple sawdust (Acer rubrum L.) at target retentions of 4.0, 6.4, 9.6 and 30.0 kg/m3. The effect of water-soluble extractives on the course of fixation was evaluated comparing the non-extracted with pre-extracted samples treated to 6.4 and 30 kg/m3. Leaching of the CCA components was monitored after complete fixation for all retentions. Fix...
S Radivojevic, P A Cooper
A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers....
D V Plackett
A simple leaching procedure for in-plant monitoring of CCA fixation
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30023
A simple leaching test is described to quantitatively estimate the extent of fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treated wood products. It is based on the reaction between diphenylcarbazide and unreacted hexavalent chromium leached from borings taken from treated wood during the fixation process. The test requires about 20 minutes to complete and can be set up in a treating pl...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Questionnaire pour la préparation de fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores
1972 - IRG/WP 103 F
A short note on fungal decay in K33-treated poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1169
Soft rot cavities and erosion of the lumen have been found in K33-treated Pinus sylvestris poles from the years 1956-66 by microscopic studies. Poor treatment quality has been proved for some of these poles. The microscopy showed an unusual pattern of attack, and pre-treatment decay is suspected but not yet proved. Sounding the poles and using the Pilodyn indicated decay, but poking did not. Quant...
Microscopic characteristics of Pinus radiata wood veneers weathered outdoors for one yea
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10018
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) wood veneers glued to solid wood hacking strips were exposed outdoors at 45° north-facing for one year and then examined by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As expected, the exposed wood surfaces were colonised by a variety of microorganisms; however, wood decay was not observed. Ultlaviolet (UV light) radiation and water were the main...
A P Singh, R A B Sweeney, E A Dunningham, D V Plackett
Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin
The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and ...
M Van der Zee, W J Homan
A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical...
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung
Model questionnaire for preparation of monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi
1972 - IRG/WP 103