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Evaluation of fluid distribution in pressure treated wood in different flow directions
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40281
Among different methods, polymerization technique was chosen to study distribution of fluid through cell types in treated wood. Red maple wood specimens with the size of 2 by 2 by 4 cm (radial, tangential and longitudinal, respectively) were prepared. Styrene monomer was used as the fluid for impregnation; because its physical properties such as surface tension, specific gravity and viscosity fall...
A Omidvar, M H Schneider

Aspects of diffusion of boron through wood
1984 - IRG/WP 3298
Boron compounds have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of wood destroying insects and fungi. They are cheap, have low mammalian toxicity and their application in the treatment of wood does not demand specialized equipment. These attributes make them specially attractive to developing countries. Currently, however, little is known about the mechanism of diffusion of boron through wood. Effecti...
S Iddi

Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two prep...
I Usta

New technique to analyze impregnation processes
1988 - IRG/WP 2304
Equipment has been developed to measure liquid flow in wood during impregnation processes. Basic principles of flow measurements using directly heated negative temperature coefficient thermistors, and some characteristics of the hardware developed are presented in this paper....
J P Hösli

A review of the configuration of bordered pits to stimulate the fluid flow
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40315
As the bordered pits have generally been thought to have an influence on the refractory nature of softwoods, structural behaviour of this conducting pathways is discussed according to the published literature. Various theories on the role of bordered pits to axial flow are expounded in respect to preservative treatment. Pit aspiration is also reviewed....
I Usta

Direct measurement of fluid flow within wood
1986 - IRG/WP 2248
The problematics of fluid flow mechanism within wood using a permeability concept are highlighted, and the non-feasibility of a practical and versatile model is explained. An alternative method using a negative temperature coefficient thermistor to measure flow velocity directly is presented. The method has been verified in living trees and shows extreme sensitivity for flow above 1 meter/hour. Fo...
J P Hösli

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell pro...
I Usta

Flow charts for termite and decay tests to determine the natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20385
This paper deals with the experimental flow charts that were used for determination the effects of fungal decay and termite attack on Sugi heartwood during the course of the study of “Comparative studies of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) among the geographic cultivate”, which was carried out by Usta et al (2006)....
I Usta, S Doi

Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water: Initial PAH migration
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50201
Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models is a lack of data o...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell, J Simonsen, S T Lebow

The treatment of sawn whitewood with organic solvent wood preservative
1982 - IRG/WP 3192
The impregnation schedules approved in the UK for the treatment of sawn European whitewood (Picea abies) with organic solvent borne preservatives result in comparitively high loadings relative to the limited depth of penetration they achieve. Results are presented, which show how substantial reduction in the overall loading may be achieved without concomitant reduction in penetration. A model for ...
L D A Saunders

Probing red maple pit membrane pore size at FSP and OD using polystyrene macromolecules
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40217
A modified solute exclusion technique was used to pressure impregnate a polystyrene molecular weight (MW) series dissolved in styrene into red maple samples at approximately the fiber saturation point (FSP) and oven dry (OD). Radial penetration was less than tangential and FSP less than OD. There was a marked penetration change with MW in the tangential direction, although there appeared to be a ...
A Omidvar, M H Schneider, A R P Van Heiningen

Efficiency of wood impregnation processes
1980 - IRG/WP 3151
Many wood impregnation processes have been in use for a very long time, up to 150 years, but they have not been progressively modified. This paper considers impregnation processes in relation to current requirements, particularly impregnation efficiency and energy consumption. The term 'pore' is used throughout in its physical sense and is not confined to botanical 'pore...
B A Richardson

Trial to determine a suitable schedule for radial and longitudinal treatment of plug samples by comparison of changes in the fluid retention and the treated area
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40211
A full-cell process was carried out using different treatment schedules for radial and longitudinal samples because of the anisotrophy of flow. When timbers are impregnated with preservatives much better penetrations are obtained via the end grain than laterally (across the grain). Therefore, suitable schedules for radial and longitudinal flow directions were determined in an trial experiment usin...
I Usta

Studies of the ray parenchyma cell ends on the radial flow of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40164
It is widely accepted that either ray tracheids or ray parenchyma cells offer the major flow pathways radially for the impregnation of softwood with preservative chemicals. It is now generally recognised that, if radial flow does occur through ray parenchyma cells, the cross-field pits play a dominating role for the liquid movement in the radial direction. In this case, the radial flow of fluid is...
I Usta

A novel solvent penetration assessment technique for wood preservativation treatments using waterborne systems
1990 - IRG/WP 2346
Solvent and hence solute (a.i.) penetration during any wood preservation treatment cycle and the flow pathways taken by the solvent in the wood are crucial elements in determining the adequacy of any treatment. Inadequate solvent penetration into specimens or an inappropriate tissue throughflow pattern during impregnation will markedly affect the distribution pattern achieved by many non-diffusibl...
A J Pendlebury, J Coetzee, E Sorfa, A Botha

Penetration and distribution of styrene in pressure treated hardwoods
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40094
A styrene impregnation method was used to compare liquid distribution in several species as affected by flow direction, sapwood/heartwood, and method of impregnation. Twenty-five mm ( 1") cubes were cut from the sapwood and heartwood of red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), red oak (Quercus rubra), ...
P A Cooper, T S Janezic, U Srinivasan, A Omidvar

Methods for improving preservative penetration into wood: a review
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40227
Pressure treatment technologies have been available since the mid-1830's, but the processes used for wood treatment are still largely unable to overcome the fundamental limitations of flow through semi-permeable pit membranes. Instead, methods have arisen that attempt to improve treatability of the wood including incising, compression rolling, through boring, or radial drilling. Other a...
J J Morrell, P I Morris

Permeability measurements on surface layers for detecting wood with abnormally high permeability
1988 - IRG/WP 2298
Wet storage of timber during the warm period of the year may lead to an increased permeability of the wood, an undesirable phenomenon for several wood industries and also for many end-uses. Neither before nor after drying, such wood with "wet storage damage" can be visually distinguished from wood with a normal permeability. A non-destructive method for inspecting the permeability of surface layer...
J B Boutelje, G Hägglund

Protection of hard and softwood through Neem leaves extracts and oil - A direction towards development of eco-friendly wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30394
Conventional wood preservatives like CCA and CCB are facing lot of criticism all over the world. It is essential to address the problem in view of environment protection. Eco-friendly wood preservatives may be considered as one option. The present study is an expolartion of neem leaves and seed oil against wood decaying fungi and termites. Azadirachta indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem is one ...
S Dhyani, S Tripathi

Influence of Grain Direction on Penetration, Retention, and Leaching of CCA(C) in Sapwood and Heartwood of Kenyan-Grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40383
Penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) in relation to grain orientation were tested in small (50mm x 50mm x 200mm) sapwood and heartwood samples of Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii. In both sapwood and heartwood of the two species, the results showed a consistent pattern: Transverse > Radial > Tangential. Whereas penetration, retention, and leaching were significantly high i...
R Venkatasamy

Influence of Grain Direction on Penetration, Retention, and Leaching of CCA(C) in Sapwood and Heartwood of Kenyan-Grown Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40384
The influence of grain orientation on penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) was tested on small samples of sapwood and heartwood of Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula. Samples measuring 50mm x 50mm, and 200mm in the longitudinal axis were sealed to expose only transverse, or radial, or tangential faces, pressure treated with 6% CCA (C), and penetration, retention and leaching of the ...
R Venkatasamy

Radial flow of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) as affected by wood tapering and the condition of end wall structure of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40441
Amenability to radial permeability of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) was studied on the base of the effects of wood tapering and the structure of end walls of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells. The results showed that the most remarkable culprits of the greatest fluid uptake (as the percentage of void volume filled by the fluid in the radial flow direction, RVVF%) are the lesser woo...
I Usta, S Aslan

Barefoot-heat-impact of oil-heat-treated wood: An important thermal property of decking boards
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40458
In this study the phenomenon of sensual heat impression was examined, when walking with bare feet on sun exposed wood based decking boards. A suitable method for measuring the heat flux from decking boards into an artificial foot was developed. The method and measuring device is described as well as results from measuring three different decking board materials: Oil-heat-treated spruce (OHT), untr...
A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher, C Brischke

A Review of Radial Flow of the Refractory Softwoods: An Example of Sitka Spruce
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40564
As one of the refractory softwood species, the major problems in the preservative treatment of spruce based on the radial flow relate to the anatomical structure of the wood material. The most important morphological features influencing this were the amount of the nature and the condition of both ray tracheids and ray parenchyma cells, and the cross-field pits in particular. The conducting pathwa...
Ilker Usta, Radovan Despot

Influence of Exposure Direction on Leaching of a Biocide from Painted Wood Surfaces
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50303
The objective of this project was to investigate the influence different exposure directions – North, East, South and West on the cumulative quantity of a biocide leached from painted wood surfaces due to rainfall and the consequences for the risk assessment. The study included a solvent-borne primer without biocides and a topcoat protected with a biocidal active substance. Both products were a...
M Klamer

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