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Succession after Fire of Fungal Fruiting Bodies in Mediterranean Pinus pinaster Stands in Spain
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10789
In this study we present the results of a 4-year survey aimed at describing the succession of fungal communities following fire in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Northwest Spain, dominated by Pinus pinaster Ait. After a large wildfire in 2002, six 2 x 50 m study plots were established in burned and unburned areas corresponding to early and late succession stages. During the autumn seasons from 2003 to 2006, fruiting bodies were collected and identified. We also collected information about dry and fresh weight, the saprotrophic or mycorrhizal status and the edibility of every species. During the four-years sampling, a total of 115 fungal taxa were collected (85 in the late stage and 60 in the early stage) from which only 30 appeared along the whole succession. Mycorrhizal population not only increased the number of species from early to late stage but also shifted in composition. After fire, pyrophytic species such as Pholiota carbonaria, Peziza violacea, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon sp. appeared. The effect of fire on fungal fruiting body’s production was opposite depending on the saprotrophic or mycorrhizal status of the species: mycorrhizal decreased 6-fold, while saprotrophic increased 4-fold. Production of edible species was negatively affected by fire, decreasing significantly the potential of rural populations to harvest marketable mushrooms. The provided results can be useful to forest managers for optimization of management and harvest of these increasingly appreciated non-wood resources. Management may also prevent or alleviate stand-replacing wildfire in these Mediterranean forests.
P Vásquez Gassibe, M Hernández-Rodriguez, R Fraile Fabero, J A Oria-De-Rueda, P Martín-Pinto


Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study the microbial community structures of untreated and treated (with brine) English oak timbers of a vessel which apart from the occasional dry-docking, has remained afloat since 1824. The spatial structure of the keelson and sister keelson areas will be described as will the decay abilities of isolates and the decay status of core samples. The results will be discussed in terms of the development of community structures under different moisture content regimes.
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith


Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20404
Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fungal community structure in a ground-proximity-test located in Hilo, Hawaii. Fungi were recovered in culture after 6, 12, or 18 months, yielding 178 unique DNA sequences that represented 85 taxa. Sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region showed the taxa represented 56 ascomycetes, 17 basidiomycetes, 1 zygomycete and 10 unknowns. Basidiomycetes were mainly found in samples treated to the lowest biocide concentrations or non-treated samples, while there were no consistent isolation patterns with ascomycetes. Overall, treatment did not appear to affect community structure. Our results highlight (i) the need for caution in designating taxonomic units (species) based on culture or ITS BLAST matches, (ii) the utility of fungal culturing followed by molecular identification but the limitation of the sampling process, (iii) the remarkably high diversity of fungi colonizing wood in a ground proximity test under these tropical conditions.
Y Cabrera, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Seasonal shifts of fungal community structure at the interface of treated or untreated wood and soil
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10721
Many wood species are degraded rapidly in soil by the fungal community. In order to preserve wood and structures in which it is used, chemical preservatives are used. Little is known about the interaction of treated wood and the surrounding soil fungal community. For this work, presented at IRG 41, wooden specimens (Pinus sylvestris sapwood, sizes 25 mm x 50 mm x 500 mm (longitudinal)) were treated with a formulation of chromium-copper-arsenic-(CCA) at two concentrations. Untreated wood of the same dimensions was used as controls. After drying and an appropriate fixation period, the specimens were buried in soi1 up to half of their length at the BAM test site in North East Germany. The interface of the wooden specimens and soil were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2008 and the nucleic acids were extracted. The structure of fungal community was assessed by T-RFLP analyses (terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism) of the fungal ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region. In addition, samples were sequenced to identify fungal community members. Significant differences in the fungal community composition were detected in response to the presence (and concentration) of wood preservatives and to the season. The species identified were predominated by ascomycete fungi, and only at the actual interface of the non-preserved wood and the soil were basidiomyecte fungi detected. The interface to CCA preserved wood was composed of sequences affiliated to the genera Phoma, Peziza and Cladosporium. Patterns of the fungal communities were highly reproducible and the spatial sampling at the test site had only a minor effect on their composition.
M Noll, I Stephan


Profiling fungal community in wood decay ecosystem by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20443
A DNA-based fingerprinting technique, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC) was developed to profile fungal communities colonizing indoor timber. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) rDNA of 74 wood samples collected from infected buildings in France. Due to its high sensitivity, the PCR-DHPLC technique was optimised for the detection and identification of wood rot fungi as well as ubiquitous contaminants. Serpula lacrymans was the most the widespread indoor wood-decay fungi and its occurrence accounts for 64% of total wood rot Basidiomycetes detected. The common cellar rot Coniophora spp. was detected in 9 environmental samples. White rot fungi like Donkioporia expansa and Heterobasidion annosum were also found in buildings. Whereas Basidiomycetes like Phlebiopsis gigantea, and Schizoporia radula were detected for the first time in the built environment. Ascomycetes responsible for wood decay were Guignardia vacinii and Oidiodendron griseum. The most prevalent moulds and Blue stain fungi found belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium species. The identification of indoor fungi based on a molecular typing technique has provided useful data in community profiling of wood-decay ecosystem, without prior fungal isolation step and most of all put into evidence the coexistence of different wood rot fungi within the same microbiotope.
S Maurice, G Le Floch, M Le Bras-Quéré, J P Rioult, G Barbier


Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes and white rot fungi to degrade these biocide products. Treated and reference (non-treated) woods samples have been incubated in containers of forest soil in Guyana. The first two samplings of these woods and soils have been realized five months apart. A crop and molecular study allowed us to isolate and identify forty strains of Ascomycetes able to develop on wood and resist xenobiotics. Until now, no Ascomycete was known to resist xenobiotics. Furthermore, a study of fungal communities of the woods and soil were done by D-HPLC and SSCP, and then analyzed by ACP. According to these analyses, biocides are leached in the soil and have an impact on these fungal communities, which are different depending on time of sampling and the way wood is processed.
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch


Oak maturation casks at the Rodenbach brewery, an industrial heritage of the Flemish Community requiring protective measures
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10898
Brewery Rodenbach has world-renowned cask halls with close to 300 oak casks, some of these big maturation casks are 150 years old and this is protected as part of the industrial heritage of the Flemish Community. Since some of these maturation casks or “foeders” were the last decades no longer fully in use some parameters of their physical condition might have increased incidence of fungal decay and have shortened considerably the service life of some of these oak casks. Most probably several basisiomycetes fundi can be linked to the fungal decay present but most probable most of the infections and serious decay are linked to Donkioporia expansa. Different conservation techniques have been considered but considering the use in contact with food and the regular access of visitors to the casks halls has put focus on monitoring and eventually replacing on a regular basis maturation casks attacked by decay fungi by new ones.
J Van Acker, I De Windt, R Ghequire


Monitoring Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi Using Field Stake Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20614
Advances in molecular identification of microbial communities enabling rapid microorganism determination have allowed ecological data to be increasingly incorporated into standardized wood performance tests. Combining standard field tests with molecular methods to study wood-associated microflora can help to better understand fungal colonization and decay processes of wood in service. The potential for using DNA-based identification techniques to examine changes in diversity and community composition of wood-inhabiting fungi was assessed in ground-contact field stake tests at the Starker Post Farm research site located near Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Field stakes of red alder (Alnus rubra), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sapwood and western red cedar heartwood (Thuja plicata) were installed and a subsample collected every 3-months (long-term exposure; LTE) or installed and replaced every 6-months (short-term exposure; STE) over a two-year period. Isolated, pure-culture fungi were sequenced and identified by comparison to the GenBank database using BLAST. A total of 384 fungal isolates were recovered and identified from 54 stakes. Eleven basidiomycete isolates were identified, with Peniophora limitata and Phanerochaete livescens occurring most frequently. The most common ascomycetes were Phialophora mustea and Cadophora sp. Species richness differed between the LTE and STE tests, while fungal diversity in both exposure tests remained constant. In contrast, diversity decreased with longer exposures. Short term variations in temperature and precipitation were the most significant environmental gradients influencing fungal community composition of stakes in ground contact. The results will be used to better understand fungal ecology and microbial colonization processes.
P Torres-Andrade, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell


Identifying the fungal community on western redcedar (Thuja plicata) wood in field tests above and in ground contact exposure: preliminary results
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10939
Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is a high value species in the Canadian forest industry due in large part to the natural durability of its heartwood. Western redcedar heartwood contains extractives that are inhibitory to the growth of many fungi responsible for decay. In order to gain insights into which extractives are important in long term durability, and which fungi are important to decay of western redcedar in service, we conducted a study looking at the fungal community on wood that has been in field tests and monitored for decay for many years. We sampled old growth and second growth western redcedar fence posts that have been in ground contact for 17 years, and deck boards that have been in an above ground test for 14 years. We performed DNA metabarcoding using Illumina sequencing and traditional culturing techniques to characterize the fungal community from samples. Preliminary results from both culture studies and DNA metabarcoding show a predominance of ascomycetes on decks. Basidiomycetes were more frequent on fence posts in the DNA metabarcoding data. The most widespread species detected from decks using DNA metabarcoding was a Hyaloscypha species and from the fence posts was the brown rot species Gloeophyllum sepiarium. The most common species isolated into culture and identified by DNA from the deck samples was the basidiomycete Pachnocybe ferruginea and from the post samples was the zygomycete Mortierella parvispora. Improving our understanding of fungal communities and the role they play in western redcedar decay as well as how they are affected by inhibitory extractives can help in the improvement or development of new wood protection systems, as well as to inform breeding programs aiming to develop seedling stock with enhanced natural durability
A Dale, S Kus, R Stirling


Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. The extent of damage to wood cells due to microbial activity varied, combined fungal and bacterial attack having the most damaging impact.
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves


An attempt to evaluate wood resistance against fungal decay in non-sterile conditions by measuring the variation of resistance to bending test
1988 - IRG/WP 2308
The main object of this work was to determine the variation of strength on large test specimens of wood (800 x 45 x 45 mm³) when exposed to accelerated fungal attacks close to natural conditions, out of test vessels. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the modulus of rupture (MOR) have been assessed. Thereby, the natural resistance of the wood species to fungal decay, the efficiency of preservative as well as the treatment applied are discussed. The wood tested is a guianese secondary species (Couma guianensis). The fungi tested are two guianese strains of brown and white rot. The exposure time is 12 weeks. No mould contamination has been recorded by use of a selective fungicide. The results obtained show that it is possible to infest in nonsterile conditions large wood specimens. Furthermore, modulus of rupture appears to be the most reliable criterion. The investigation, that requires limited equipment and staff could be performed in any tropical research station as it has been done at CTFT, French Guiana center.
L N Trong


Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse


A short note on fungal decay in K33-treated poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1169
Soft rot cavities and erosion of the lumen have been found in K33-treated Pinus sylvestris poles from the years 1956-66 by microscopic studies. Poor treatment quality has been proved for some of these poles. The microscopy showed an unusual pattern of attack, and pre-treatment decay is suspected but not yet proved. Sounding the poles and using the Pilodyn indicated decay, but poking did not. Quantification of the attacks was possible only by microscopic studies.
H Friis-Hansen


Biological and chemical observation on the early fungal colonization of TBTO treated Swedish redwood stakes
1984 - IRG/WP 3311
Data on the early fungal colonization of Swedish redwood stakes, impregnated with 1% TBT0 / 0.5% dieldrin solution, both by double vacuum impregnation and immersion processes are presented. Results of chemical analyses of wood samples from the outer 1 mm of separate painted and unpainted stakes, exposed over the same twelve month period, are also discussed.
R Hill, A H Chapman, A Samuel, K Manners, G Morton


Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30228
Although creosote, or coal tar creosote, has been the choice of preservative treatment for the railroad industry since the 1920s, exuding or "bleeding" on the surface of creosote-treated products has been one incentive for further enhancements in creosote production and utility (Crawford et al., 2000). To minimize this exuding problem, laboratories such as Koppers Industries Inc., USA, and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Chemical and Wood Technology, Melbourne, Australia, have developed changes in processing of coal tar that produce distillates with fewer contaminants. This "clean distillate" is then used to formulate "clean creosote" as a preservative. These new, unique creosote formulations are being investigated as part of a program to enhance the use of regionally important wood species in the United States. Four retention levels of each of two new creosote formulations creosote, one pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC) and one creosote formulation that meets the AWPA Standard C2-95 for P1/P13 creosote (AWPA, 1995a), were applied to two softwood species and two hardwood species. Two laboratory procedures, the soil-block and fungal cellar tests (accelerated field simulator), were used to evaluate the four creosote formulations. These procedures characterized the effectiveness of the wood preservatives. The soil-block tests were used to determine the minimum threshold level of the preservative necessary to inhibit decay by pure cultures of decay fungi. In general, the soil block tests showed there was little difference in the ability of the four creosote formulations to prevent decay at the three highest retention levels as summarized in a previous report by Crawford and DeGroot (1996). The soil-block tests will not be discussed in this report. Fungal cellar tests expose treated wood to mixtures of soil-borne fungi that promote accelerated attack. Crawford and DeGroot (1996) discussed the evaluation of the creosote formulations after 17 months of exposure in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), fungal cellar. At that point in time data from the fungal cellar tests showed that softwoods are protected better than hardwoods for all four formulations of creosote tested. This report will discuss exposure of the fungal cellar stakes upto 36 months. In addition, field stake tests are being used to verify service life of the new creosote formulations in vivo. Results from accelerated tests are indicative of field performance, but the correlation between laboratory and field results is still being investigated. Field stake tests are regarded as critical, long-term evaluations that provide results most directly related to the performance of treated products in service. In this study, we report on the performance of the creosote formulations after five years of exposure in field tests.
D M Crawford, P K Lebow, R C De Groot


A direct method for testing plywood and particle boards against fungal decay
1984 - IRG/WP 2214
A method directly inspired from the French standard testing method of the resistance of particle boards against fungal decay (AFNOR N° 51.295 May 1980) is described. But in that experimentation, the infestation is localized and realized in non sterile conditions. Small blocks of Fagus sylvatica (60 x 20 x 10 mm³) used as " inoculates " are infested with basidiomycetes, in Kolle flask for 4 to 6 weeks, then tightly pressed against the middle part of the test specimens (190 x 15 x 15 mm³). The lower part of the inoculates is plunged in vermiculite kept constantly humid by water containing a selective fungicide. After twelve weeks of exposure in non sterile conditions, in a green house with constant temperature around 20°C, the test specimens are then submitted to a static bending test until fracture. The comparison of the fracture-stress between control test specimens and the specimens exposed to wood rotting basidiomycetes permits to evaluate the resistance of the studied materials against fungal decay.
L N Trong


Are fungal cellar tests really necessary?
1989 - IRG/WP 2333
During the past decade the range of methodology used to evaluate wood preservative potential has significantly expanded. At the forefront of these new tools available to the scientist·is the fungal cellar. This technique, as currently applied, involves the exposure of treated and untreated samples to conditions of moisture and temperature which ensure optimum fungal attack. By comparison data with that obtained on similar preservative systems in conventional stake tests, acceleration factors for predicting performance have been developed. This discussion paper examines the philosophy influencing the development of fungal cellar testing, and provides an alternative viewpoint.
J N R Ruddick


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood
1976 - IRG/WP 144
J F Levy


Virulence tests with fungal strains used in EN 113 CEN ring test. Results with Coniophora puteana (Schum.ex Fr.) Karst
1986 - IRG/WP 2249
D Dirol


Preliminary note on the fungal problem of rubber wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3246
Susceptibility of rubber wood to fungal attack limits its wider utilisation. Fungal problems encountered in treating rubber wood with boron compounds by diffusion process have been discussed. Sodium pentachlorophenoxide and 2-thiocyanomethylthio benzothioazole (TCMTB) were investigated for possible control of fungal growth during diffusion storage and their performance has been reported.
R Gnanaharan


Defining fungal decay types - Final proposal
1988 - IRG/WP 1355
The term soft rot is proposed for all forms of decay caused by Ascomycetes and non-basidiomyceteous Fungi imperfecti. The terms brown rot and white rot should be used only for decay caused by Basidiomycetes. Brown rot is characterized by extensive depolymerization of the cellulose and limited lignin degradation. White rot is characterised by significant degradation of the lignin component in wood.
T Nilsson


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