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An attempt to evaluate wood resistance against fungal decay in non-sterile conditions by measuring the variation of resistance to bending test
1988 - IRG/WP 2308
The main object of this work was to determine the variation of strength on large test specimens of wood (800 x 45 x 45 mm³) when exposed to accelerated fungal attacks close to natural conditions, out of test vessels. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the modulus of rupture (MOR) have been assessed. Thereby, the natural resistance of the wood species to fungal decay, the efficiency of preservati...
L N Trong


Efficacy of some extractives from Pinus heartwood for protection of Pinus radiata sapwood against biodeterioration. Part 1: Fungal decay
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30072
Chemical compounds thought to contribute to the natural durability of heartwood of Pinus spp. were either chemically synthesised in the laboratory or extracted from the heartwood of Pinus elliottii or Pinus caribaea. These compounds included the stilbenes, pinosylvin and its mono- and di-methyl ethers, and the flavonoids, pinobanksin and pinocembrin. Small blocks of Pinus radiata sapwood were impr...
M J Kennedy, J A Drysdale, J Brown


Effect of felling time related to lunar calendar on the durability of wood and bamboo -Fungal degradation during above ground exposure test for 2 years- (Preliminary report)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20311
Current study was carried out to know whether the felling time of trees and bamboos based on lunar calendar affects natural durability of felled wood-bamboo or not. Each of one sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) tree of 28 years old and one Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) of around 3 years old was cut 12 times between February and December in 2003. Six sets of sugi tree and bamboo were felled in ...
K Yamamoto, S Uesugi, K Kawakami


Flow charts for termite and decay tests to determine the natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20385
This paper deals with the experimental flow charts that were used for determination the effects of fungal decay and termite attack on Sugi heartwood during the course of the study of “Comparative studies of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) among the geographic cultivate”, which was carried out by Usta et al (2006)....
I Usta, S Doi


The resistance of wood coated with different solvent-borne paints against colonisation by decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40468
This paper examines different solvent-borne paints characteristics and their decay resistance when applied on pine wood surface. It was determined by the standard ENV 839 procedure. The part of samples were subjected to accelerated ageing according to the EN 84 standard. The discussed commercial paint systems were typical stains or penetrating oil-based products, with or without biocides....
B Mazela, P Hochmańska


Fungal resistance of smoke-dried Cryptomeria japonica wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40118
Performance of smoke dried wood on fungal resistance was studied. The maximum temperature of the smoke seasoning was 80-90°C in the drying room and 70-80°C within the wood for 6 days during the treatment for 15 days. Decay resistance of smoke-dried Cryptomeria japonica wood was evaluated using a brown rot fungus, Tyromyces palustris. Weight losses of untreated wood, smoke-dried wood, and smoke-d...
K Yamamoto, I Momohara, T Nishimura


Natural durability of Iranian saxual wood (Haloxylon persicum) against the fungal decay
1991 - IRG/WP 1515
Haloxylon persicum is vidly planted in the deserfic region of Iran. At the present time, in the age of 30, these small trees are ready for cutting for the different uses, specially for rural buildings. But there's any knowledge about its durability. In this study the laboratory tests were carried out in accordance to European Standard. 5 fungi were used as: Trametes versicolor, Coniophora...
D Parsapajouh, F H Schweingruber, K Richter


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necess...
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy


Fungal-termite associations in the natural resistance of selected eucalypt timbers
1978 - IRG/WP 173
Butt billets of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell., Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., showing no visible signs of decay, were examined for the presence of fungi in outer, middle and inner heartwood. Fungi obtained in pure culture were characterized. Eucalyptus regnans yielded Cytospora eucalypticola van der Westhuizen, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Penicillium ...
D B A Ruyooka


Assessment of wood decay in small-scale unsterile soil-bed tests
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20111
This study is concerned with the investigation of wood decay in small-scale unsterile soil-bed tests. Tests were performed with untreated heartwood samples from five hardwood species of different natural durability classes ranging from highly perishable to very resistant. Our results confirmed the critical role of soil moisture content on wood decay. The highest decay rates were observed at moistu...
L Machek, A M Derksen, R Sierra-Alvarez


Laboratory testing of wood natural durability - In soil-bed assays
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20141
Laboratory methods for assessing wood decay resistance are being investigated in the framework of an ongoing European research project. This paper summarizes the main results obtained for soil-bed tests based on the European prestandard ENV 807-Test 2. The data suggest that this testing methodology is suitable for evaluating the natural durability of timber species in soil-contact under conditions...
R Sierra-Alvarez, I Le Bayon, J K Carey, I Stephan, J Van Acker, M Grinda, G Kleist, H Militz, R-D Peek


Evaluating the resistance of wood-based panel products to fungal attack
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20071
At present there is considerable disagreement among national research institutes within Europe and panel product manufacturers on the most appropriate method of testing and indeed the need for specific biological durability testing. This paper seeks to place before a broader international audience, the issues related to development of a European standard for evaluating the resistance to fungal dec...
R G Lea, R W Berry


Some studies on fungal deterioration of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis)
1980 - IRG/WP 2140
For the sreening of anti-stain chemicals trials with selected agricultural fungicides and new chemicals were carried out. Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were used at test organisms. For testing the durability of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) suitable local rotting fungi (Basidiomycetes), based on high degrading power, which may later be employed in standard tests...
A Sujan, A G Tan, M Stevens


Possible durability transfer from durable to non durable wood species. The study case of teak wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10392
Teakwood is well known for its excellent natural durability, mostly due to its high proportion of extracts. Amongst these extracts, quinones, and more precisely some naphtoquinones (such as lapachol) and anthraquinones (such as tectoquinone) appear to play a crucial role in the resistance to wood decay organisms. At a laboratory scale, sawdust from malaysian teak heartwood has been extracted under...
M-F Thévenon, C Roussel, J-P Haluk


Effects of the specimen position on fungal colonisation and wood decay by en 113 test fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20136
For testing wood preservatives according to EN 113 it is common practice to plant the test blocks on neutral supports in order to prevent (1) a diffusion of chemicals into the agar medium and (2) an excessive moistening of the specimens. The procedure was employed in EN 350-1 for testing the natural durability of solid wood. It turned out to be of problematic nature because of the individual requ...
G Kleist, M-T Lenz, R-D Peek


Screening of fungal strains for wood extractive degradation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10254
Fungal strains were screened for their ability to degrade apolar extractives in wood from scots pine. The degradation of total wood extractives by 91 different strains was monitored in stationary batch assays incubated for 6 weeks. The results obtained show that the ability of wood-inhabiting fungi to utilize wood extractives varied greatly, even for different isolates of the same species. Fungal ...
J Dorado, M J Martinez-Inigo, T A van Beek, F W Claassen, J B P A Wijnberg, R Sierra-Alvarez


Comparative studies of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) among the geographic cultivates
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10592
Variation of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) (also known as Sugi) was investigated by accelerated tests for decay (Fomitopsis palustris (Berk. et Curt.) Murr.) and termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) attacks on 13 clones of Sugi trees from Kyushu-Okinawa Region (Fukuka, Ooita, Saga, Miyazaki, Kagoshima). For this purpose, 57 twenty-five years old Sugi trees o...
I Usta, K Takata, S Doi


Biological Protection of Composite Panel from Moulds and Decay
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10612
Composite panels, such as oriented strand board (OSB), are widely used in house construction in North America. These structural panels are normally made of non-durable wood species and are susceptible to moulds and decay when exposed to wet conditions. Building envelope failures due to moulds, decay or poor construction practices can negatively impact the image of wood. To ensure durability of com...
Dian-Qing Yang, Xiang-Ming Wang, Hui Wan


Detection of Anti-Fungal Sapwood Extractives in Non-Durable Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and Jelutong (Dyera costulata)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10634
A general laboratory bioassay method of Woodward and Pearce (1985) was adopted to detect anti-fungal activity of sapwood or heartwood extractives of 5 Malaysian hardwoods [dark red meranti heartwood (Shorea spp.), red balau heartwood (Shorea spp.), kulim heartwood (Scorodocarpus borneensis), jelutong sapwood (Dyera costulata) and rubberwood sapwood (Hevea brasiliensis), including the temperate Pin...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce


Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20402
There is a need to establish new objective and sensitive methods for early detection and quantification of decay fungi in wood materials. Molecular methods have proven to be a useful tool within wood protection issues, however, this field is still poorly explored and so far relatively few have used these methods within the field of wood deterioration. Among the techniques used in the indirect quan...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, I Børja, C Björdal


Fungal decay resistance and durability of wood products made from borax-impregnated wood and bonded with corn starch and tannin adhesive
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30494
At present, the production of wood composites mainly relies on the petrochemical-based and formaldehyde-based adhesives such as phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins and urea formaldehyde (UF) resins, which are non-renewable and therefore ultimately limited in supply. This paper concerns the decay resistance of wood products bonded with a new, environment-friendly adhesive derived from abundant and rene...
A Moubarik, A Pizzi, A Allal, F Charrier, B Charrier


Natural durability of African Padauk and Niove. Comparison of new trials and former data from the CIRAD database
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10743
African Padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii) and Niove (Staudia kamerunensis) were tested in laboratory against Basidiomycetes. The results were calculated according to the requirements of EN 350-1 (1994) and XP CEN/TS 15083-1 (2006). Padauk samples showed a high durability and very small variations between trees and within tree. Niove presented a high durability, but with notable differences according ...
Y N N’Kolo Meze’e, N Leménager, C Baudassé, M-F Thévenon


Moisture dynamics of WPC as basis for biological durability
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40520
The largest market for wood-polymer composites (WPCs) is currently decking. Although many products are commercially available, a proper standard for the assessment of the biological durability of WPC does not exist. Recommended standards for testing resistance against basidiomycetes should be completed with a method to bring the specimens in a worst case situation, obtaining a moisture level high ...
N Defoirdt, J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke


Durability testing of coconut shell according to ENV 807
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10761
Coconut shell was tested in the laboratory according to the European standard ENV 807 with three different soil types: compost soil, brown rot/soft rot rich soil and white rot/soft rot rich soil. Mass losses between 14 and 16 % were achieved with all three soils, indicating that the decay type is of little importance in the degradation process. Somewhat higher mass losses, 19-22 % were obtained fo...
J Jermer, A H H Wong, K Segerholm, T Nilsson


Evaluation of fungal infestation and decay in a simulated use class 3 situation (block test) after some years of exposure
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20487
The so named “block test” was designed as part of the assessment methodology for testing the behaviour of natural and modified wood used under use class 3 (EN 335-2) conditions. The test was developed to expose the wood close to the ground to an environment with high humidity and high biological activity, but not in soil contact. The present study describes the evaluation of fungal infestatio...
A Gellerich, K Röhl, S Adamopoulos, H Militz


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