Your search resulted in 42 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been eluc...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada
A possible role of unique TCA cycles in wood-rotting basidiomycetes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10461
The copper tolerant brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, acquires metabolic energy by use of the constitutively-occurring Kornberg’s glyoxylate cycle coordinating with oxalate biosynthesis and glucose oxidation (Erman Munir et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, (2001) 98, 11126-11130). Furthermore, this fungus does not have the normal TCA cycle, lacking 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase which is a ke...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada
A physiological role of the glyoxylate and TCA cycles in fruitbody formation of the coppertolerant brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10430
Changes in activity of the representative enzymes involved in biosynthesis of oxalic acid (oxalate) and carbon metabolism of glucose were investigated in relation to the fruit body formation of the copper-tolerant brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris. Changes in specific activities of the two glyoxylate (GLOX) cycle key enzymes (isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS)), the two oxalate-fo...
Jeong-Jun Yoon, T Hattori, M Shimada
Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
Life cycle analysis: Assessing environmental impact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50034
Environmental impact assesment is a major issue that faces every nation today. However, consistently and objectively measuring the environmental impact is difficult. During the past two decades, a process called life cycle analysis was developed that tried to make consistent and objective environmental assessments. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry broadened the concept to not ...
S L LeVan
Investigations on the life cycle and nutrition of Criocephalus rusticus L
1974 - IRG/WP 127
The longhorn beetle Criocephalus rusticus L or Arhopalus rusticus (L) is widely distributed in Europe and Asia. It attacks softwoods. The primary host trees are pines, ie freshly felled, unbarked logs, dying standing trees and stumps. After feeding under the bark the larvae enter the sapwood and also the heartwood. Timber to be used for building purposes may be rendered useless by their tunnelling...
Life cycle analysis of utility poles. A Swiss case study
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-05
Use of preservative-treated wood products faces increasing public and political pressure because of environmental concerns regarding the chemicals used to protect the wood. However, critics usually focus only on one single aspect of the whole life cycle of treated wood products, disregarding other environmental effects of timber utilization. To evaluate the ecological consequences of wooden utilit...
T Künniger, K Richter
Waste management of wood products in life cycle assessment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50154
Within the framework of the European project LIFE SYS WOOD (contractnr. FAIR CT95-7026) TNO has performed a study on the waste management of wood demolition waste for inclusion in Life Cycle Assessment. In LIFE SYS WOOD one of the main aims was to develop a consistent LCA methodology for wood products. LCA case studies have been performed by partners on wood as raw material, glulam contructions, O...
P Esser, P Eggels, A Voss
Life-cycle assessement of treated wood: A view from the roa
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50078
Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) is being used increasingly as a tool to structure information on the environmental characteristics of material and processes. This paper is based on the experience gained from our LCA studies on treated wood products over the last 4 years. The comprehensive and logical examination af the information available on treated timber provided by LCA has allowed identification...
W Hillier, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J N B Bell
Comparative life cycle assessment of Swiss railroad sleepers
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50117
The results of an environmental LCA carried out on railway sleepers made of prestressed concrete, sectional steel and creosote impregnated beech as used on main lines of Switzerland's railways are presented. All extractions from and insertions into the environment which were connected with the manufacture, use and disposal of the different types of sleeper were inventoried and assessed, i...
T Künniger, K Richter
Commercial potential of the four-cycle method for the impregnation of green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia
1975 - IRG/WP 347
This paper was presented to the Conference on Wood Protection held in Sarajevo (Yugoslavia) in 1973. The paper was based partially on the report prepared by J. Struhar and G. F. Franciosi, who were appointed in 1972 as FAO consultants to demonstrate the new impregnation process for green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia. The so-called 4-cycle method was developed at the State Forest Research Institute...
Wharf-borer a threat to stored archaeological timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1560
Increased interest in marine archaeology has occured in recent years. Stored waterlogged archaeological timbers have been shown to be degraded by physical and microbial agents. In recent years a new threat has been highlighted, namely the wharf-borer Nacerdes melanura (L.). The objective of this paper is to outline studies of the morphology, biology, life-history and carbohydrate digestion by this...
A J Pitman, E B G Jones, A M Jones, M Rule
A methodology for the life-cycle assessment of treated timber products
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-01
Using case studies of CCA-treated motorway fenceposts and creosote-treated electricity transmission poles, the paper suggests an approach to evaluation of the overall environmental impact of treated timber products, utilising the emerging systems analysis method of life-cycle assessment (LCA). The development and application of LCA methodologies to date is reviewed and the key features identified....
S R Smith, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson
A rearing procedure for the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L
1973 - IRG/WP 228
The technique practised at the Princes Risborough Laboratory for culturing Hylotrupes bajulus is described. It is modified from methods previously suggested by German workers. A protein and vitamin enriched wood diet to accelerate larval growth is employed and larvae are subsequently given a period of cool storage to induce pupation. Adults are confined in groups with prepared surfaces for egg lay...
R W Berry
Dutch national environmental policy strategy (NMP): Implications throughout the life cycle of treated timber and for the Dutch preservation industry
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-31
All overview of relevant environmental legislation and instruments for control is given for each stage of the life cycle of treated timber. Recent policy in the Netherlands has been focused around the "National Environmental Policy Strategy", in which a general policy with regard to reduction of pollution to the air, soil and water is described. The principle is one of an "Integrated Chain of Cont...
P Esser, D A Lewis, A J Pendlebury
In search of excellence - A necessary challenge
1990 - IRG/WP 3567
Consumerism and environmentalism are gaining much influence. At national and E.C.-level the policy conducted is based on prevention of pollution through "sound" wood preservatives. Supposing that "environmental friendly" products do not exist it is understood that "sound" products have least effect on the environment during their whole life cycle. In the past only the effectiveness was paramount, ...
Environmental consequences of various materials in utility poles - A life cycle analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3726
A model for environmental life cycle analysis, LCA, has been created to compare environmental impact from transmission poles, made alternatively of concrete, steel, aluminium and pine wood treated with CCA type B or creosote. The main pollution sources and energy use are included in the LCA. One pole size, 12 meters long, is presented in the study, a so called "45 kV" pole. Poles of different mate...
M Erlandsson, K Ödeen, M-L Edlund
Environmental evaluation of products by life cycle analysis [La problématique de lévaluation environnementale des produits à partir de l'analyse de leur cycle de vie et de leur "écobilan"]
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50002
In the last years a significant evolution in terms of industrial environment emerged. It has been realized that regulations on specific pollutants, controls on industrial sites, although indispensable actions, had to be completed with extended approaches based on the assessment of products and integrated substance chain management. To take into account such an approach, methodological researches h...
G C Landrieu
Assessment of the environmental impacts in life cycle analysis
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-31
Evaluation of environmental impacts is of crucial importance nowadays but it is a complex problem. Different methodologies have been proposed for the last 20 years such as the "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) approach. Life Cycle Assessment is an evalution tool of the impacts on the environment of a system including the whole activities associated with, from the extraction of the raw materials to the...
Proposal for a method aiming at the quantification of the impact of wood extraction in Life Cycle Assessment
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50113
Life Cycle Assessment has been accepted as an instrument for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Characterisation factors for impact assessment of emissions from products have been established. To date no characterisation factor exists for the extraction of biotic resources, for example wood. Since the main disadvantage of using wood as a material lies in the extraction of reso...
P Esser, E Van der Voet
Oxalic acid metabolism of Postia placenta
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1566
The oxalic acid metabolism of Postia placenta was studied in liquid culture in order to identify the metabolic pathways of biosynthesis and to determine whether oxalic acid physiology could be correlated with efficiency in wood decay. Oxalic acid production was determined for test strain MAD698 grown in a basal defined medium with a variety of different carbohydrate and nitrogen sources. The highe...
J A Micales
CCA-treated Wood Disposed in Landfills and Life-cycle Trade-Offs With Waste-to-Energy and MSW Landfill Disposal
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50231
CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. Although some wood is combusted for the production of energy in the U.S., more often than not, CCA-treated wood is disposed in landfills. In other countries, wood, often including CCA-treated wood, is combusted for the production of energy. This paper is presented in two parts. Part I evaluates the impact of CCA-tre...
J Jambeck, K Weitz, T G Townsend, H M Solo-Gabriele
Preliminary desk research in the Netherlands on development of a Knowledge Based System for Life Cycle Assessment of wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50093
TNO is currently coordinating an EC-project (LIFE-SYS WOOD) to develop a consistent approach to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of wood products. Existing and new LCA-inventory data of six wood products will be evaluated on reliability and consistency. After validation, LCA-results will be made available through a Knowledge Based System (by 1998-1999). The aim of the KBS is to make LCA-results availab...
P Esser, D Robson, R Vanhauten
Life cycle approached environmental information to promote treated timber
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-13
This paper exemplifies the possibilities to compare products and product systems with help of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool for environmental assessment. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has developed a concept for evaluation of environmental impacts based on normalisation, based on so called environmental quality objectives (EQO). This concept makes it possible to compare a pr...
Life Cycle Assessment of borate treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-12
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is being used increasingly around the world by decision-makers to help incorporate the environmental component of sustainability into their activities. U.S. Borax regularly assesses how its products contribute to sustainable development. Using data gleaned from LCA of its products, the company recently completed its first ISO 14040 compliant cradle-to-grave LCA of lum...
M J Manning