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Combustion and thermal characteristics of Korean wood species
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40727
This study examined the combustion and thermal characteristics of domestic woods in Korea. Wood was confirmed by a cone calorimeter according to the KS F ISO 5660-1 standard. The combustion properties of the wood were measured in terms of the heat release rate (HRR), total heat released (THR), mass lose rate (MLR), and ignition time (time to ignition; TTI). Also, the thermal properties were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the thermal stability of wood. The result of this experiment would be useful for fundamentals of guiding the combustion properties and thermal stability using wood application.
Huyun Jeong Seo, Jung-eun Park, Dong Won Son, Won-Joung Hwang


The development of a suitable fire retardant for Radiata pine and other species
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30744
The use of fire retardant chemicals, with the overarching aim of creating a safer environment is not a new one, however it is generally under-developed and is often afflicted with an image of environmental and health issues and misperceived high costs. There is an ever-increasing need and desire for effective fire retardancy in timbers to inhibit or suppress the combustion process. This is paramount throughout the world, ever more so now with the effects of climate change driving the need for better protection of building timbers both in commercial and domestic use. Year on year, fires around the globe, on average are becoming larger and seemingly more destructive. These fires are affecting not only forest, bush and scrub land but populated areas too. Fire is unpredictable, destroying residences and taking lives. By slowing combustion, lives can be saved by giving people longer to evacuate. In this study we have investigated enhanced fire resistance properties for a number of timber species in relation to the heat release values (of various species of timber). Unlike many traditional fire retardants which are painted or sprayed onto the timber, this new innovative chemistry is applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation with a fire retardant based on phosphorus and nitrogen synergy. We have conducted a number of trials here in New Zealand and will continue to do so on Radiata pine (Pinus radiata), Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), American white oak (Quercus alba) and Silver beech (Nothofagus menziesii). Variability within material and species plays a key role in retention of the fire retardant and subsequent performance of these wood products when subjected to intense heat. The fire testing results from a research laboratory utilising the small-scale test method ISO 5660 – cone calorimeter test confirm the proven benefits of this fire retardant.
B R Derham, M R Fortune


Basidiospore structure and germination of Serpula lacrymans and Coniophora puteana
1988 - IRG/WP 1340
Using a nuclear staining technique and fluorescence microscopy, the basidiospores of Serpula lacrymans were shown to be uninucleate whereas those of Coniophora puteana were binucleate. The germination rate of the Serpula lacrymans spores, which was considerably lower than that of Coniophora puteana, decreased further after storage or heat treatment. Transmission electron micrographs indicate that the majority of Serpula lacrymans spores have a disorganised internal cellular structure and are filled mainly with lipidic material; these spores lack a nucleus. Germination of viable Serpula lacrymans spores occurs through the spore apiculus or through the spore apex. In contrast, Coniophora puteana spores can produce two germ tubes and germinate simultaneously through the apiculus and the apex.
B M Hegarty, U Schmitt


Measurements of rot fungal activity as a function of moisture content by isothermal calorimetry
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20428
Measurements of heat production rate have been made on wood samples with the brown rot fungus Postia placenta at different moisture contents. The results clearly indicate that the heat production rate (a measure of respiration rate and activity) is moisture dependent. When the moisture content is decreased, less heat is produced, and when the moisture content is increased, more heat is produced. Isothermal calorimetry seems to be a measurement technique well suited to the study of rot fungal activity as a function of temperature and moisture content.
L Wadsö, A Pilgård, G Alfredsen


The activity of a wood-decaying fungus during drying and rewetting cycles measured by isothermal calorimetry
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20526
Wood decaying fungi are an essential part of any ecosystems as they are the main decomposers of cellulose and lignin-containing materials. But as wood is a common building material the risk for decay fungi growth and subsequent degradation of our construction material is a concern. There are important physiological aspects of the growth and activity of decay fungi that are unknown today, and without knowledge on these factors it is not possible to make physiological relevant models for decay fungi. Measurements of heat production rate have been made with isothermal calorimetry on wood samples with the brown rot fungus Postia placenta at different moisture contents. Isothermal calorimetry gives a direct measurement of an organism’s activity as it measures the heat produced when the organism respires and it is has shown to be a very suitable method to study fungal activity as a function of different parameters. The results clearly show the heat production rate (a measure of respiration rate and fungal activity) is moisture dependent. For most cases, less heat was produced when the moisture content was decreased, and more heat was produced when the moisture content was increased. It was also found that when the moisture content increased after a dry period, the increase in activity was significantly delayed. However, if the moisture state was then kept constant at a high level the activity slowly increased, showing that the fungi need time to recover back to the original activity level after drying. Isothermal calorimetry is a measurement technique well suited for the study of the activity of wood-decaying fungi as a function of temperature and moisture content.
S Johansson, L Wadsö, A Pilgård, G Alfredsen


Effect of silver nanoparticles on the rate of heat transfer to the core of the medium-density fiberboard mat
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40653
Effect of silver nanoparticles on the rate of heat transferred to the core section of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) mat was studied here. A 400 ppm aqueous nanosilver suspension was used at three consumption levels of 100, 150, and 200 mL/kg based on the weight of dry wood fibers; the results were then compared with the control MDF panels. The size range of silver nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that the uniform and even dispersion of nanoparticles throughout the MDF-matrix significantly contributed to the faster transfer of heat to the core section. As to the loss of mat water content after the first 3 – 4 minutes under the hot press, the core temperature slightly decreased in the control panels. However, heat-transferring property of silver nanoparticles contributed in keeping the core temperature rather constant in the NS150 and 200 treatments. As to the de-polymerization of part of the resin in the surface layers of the mat due to the rapid absorption of heat from hot plates by the nanoparticles, it can be concluded that the optimum nano-suspension content should not necessarily be the highest one.
H Reza Taghiyari, O Schmidt, E Bari, P M Tahir, A Karimi, P Nouri, A Jahangiri


Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund


Thermal treatment of wood: European Processes and their background
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40241
Recent efforts on thermal treatment of wood lead to the development of several processes introduced to the European market during the last few years. The total production capacity of heat treated wood in 2001 is estimated as approx. 165.000 m3. In the paper the different heat processes are presented. The general technology as well as scientific data on the chemical transformation of the cell wall polymers, on the biological performance, on the physical and mechanical properties of the treated wood are presented and discussed
H Militz


Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification with reactive linseed oil derivative (UZA), Wood blocks of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood were modified in pilot plants. Methods 1-5 were performed by the authors at Chalmers University of Technology or at BFH in Hamburg. Methods 5-9 were part of a European research project (the Chemowood project, FAIR-CT97-3187) and therefore each of these modifications was performed by the project participant responsible for the method. For laboratory testing in TMCs (modified European standard ENV 807) and pure basidiomycete culture bioassays, smaller test specimens were cut from the modified wood blocks. Most of the modification methods were applied on test specimens for marine field testing (EN 275) and some methods to produce mini-stakes for field tests in five Swedish fields. Some modification methods result in modified wood with poor durability, whereas other methods (acetylation, furfurylation and MMF-treatment) seem to provide excellent resistance to microbial decay.
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson


Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after two years’ exposure outdoors
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40296
The corrosion of common fastener materials now in use - mild steel, zinc-coated steel, aluminium and Sanbond Z-coated steel – has been evaluated after two years’ exposure outdoors in untreated and heat-treated spruce (Picea abies) respectively. Spruce from South-western Sweden was used. The heat-treatment was carried out in Finland according to the ThermoWood process at a maximum temperature of 220 °C for five hours. The results so far show that the corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood according to the particular specification is more severe than in untreated wood. Mild steel and zinc-coated steel has been most susceptible. Stainless steel is hardly attacked at all.
J Jermer, B-L Andersson


Accelerated ageing of preservatives in treated wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3476
New preservatives are tested in the laboratory and often in field tests before they are used commercially. Some preservatives, however, tested in the laboratory do not show the expected stability when used in service. The differences between laboratory tests and practical use can never be completely eliminated but must be minimized as far as possible by relevant testing methods. Studies of the effect of different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and the wood preserving capacity of six different fungicides or combinations thereof have been carried out. Chemicals tested were tributyltinoxide (TBTO), tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN), furmecyclox, benzalkoniumchloride (AAC) + guazatin and pentachlorophenol. The ageing procedures included exposure of test specimens in a wind tunnel (according to EN 73), in an oven at 40°C, 60°C and 70°C, leaching (according to EN 84) and combinations of these procedures. The influence of the different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and toxic effect of different fungicides was obvious and, for some procedures and chemicals, comparable with experiences from practice.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, B Jensen, C-E Sundman


Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Monographic card on Antrodia serialis
1984 - IRG/WP 1145
G Seehan


The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in the present paper.
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna


Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the wood during autoclaving, with copper citrate demonstrating the highest percent loss. Forty-four to 82 percent of the copper remaining in the samples following autoclaving was removed during exposure to the bacterium in liquid culture; copper naphthenate in oil and ACQ-D had losses of eighty percent or greater of the remaining copper. The bacterium removed as much or more total copper in 4 of 6 gas-sterilized samples (85-94%) than the cumulative effects of steam-sterilization and the bacterium on treated samples. Copper loss from in-service treated wood compromises the efficacy of copper-based wood preservatives.
D M Crawford, C A Clausen


Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat treatment in air atmosphere was also carried out at the same temperatures for comparison. Wood treated in hot oil was more equal in its appearance than wood heated in hot air. The treatment of spruce and pine in the oil-bath resulted in a better resistance against Coniophora puteana in a lab test according to EN 113 compared to the treatment in air atmosphere. In order to achieve the wanted upgrading effect, certain changes of mechanical properties and colour must be accepted. However, the strength loss caused by the heat-treatment in oil was less severe than in air atmosphere. Since all materials and the energy used in the process originate from renewable resources, the oil-heat-treatment appears to be environmentally friendly. All in all, the heat treatment in oil might be a promising approach to upgrade wood for outdoor use.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff


Heat treatment of bamboo
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40216
Bamboo is a fast growing material with remarkable mechanical properties. In many tropical and subtropical countries bamboo is available in suitable dimensions for a reasonable price. Therefore it is used for many purposes which range from the basket production up to the industrial production of parquet or paper. However, bamboo is known as susceptible to fungal or insect attack and it is difficult to treat with preservatives. Therefore BFH investigated the possibility to protect bamboo by other methods and tested the application of a heat treatment. European grown bamboo (Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens) and Asian grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were heat treated and were subsequently inoculated with the basidiomycetes Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune in an agar block test. Further the durability of treated specimens against soft rot fungi was tested. The changes of the mechanical properties (MOE and shock resistance) caused by the heat treatment were determined too. The application of temperatures above 200°C caused a clearly enhanced durability against a basidiomycete as well as against a soft rot attack but the shock resistance was intensely reduced. Further investigations are still ongoing. The study has been carried out with financial support from the Commission of the European Communities, specific INCO programme INCO-DC 961344.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek


The effects of heat treament on the specific gravity of beech and spruce wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40254
The effects of heat treatment on specific gravity of beech (Fagus orientalis) and spruce wood (Picea orientalis) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 2 x 2 x 3 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at four different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C) and three different durations (2 h, 6 h and 10 h) under air atmospheres. The results indicated that the specific gravity values treated by heating generally exhibited a decrease with increasing the exposure durations and temperatures compared to the untreated wood samples.
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Colakoglu, E D Gezer, A Temiz


Report on the monographic card on Coriolus versicolor
1972 - IRG/WP 111
C Jacquiot


Report on the status of collaborative experiments within the Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2194
This report summarises the results of co-operative work carried out within the Sub-Group on Basidiomycete tests up to December 1982. The principle findings are recorded in the Conclusions Section. Work intended between IRG-13 in Turkey and IRG-14 in Australia is cited under Future Programme. An Annex provides a response sheet for existing and new participants to notify their contributions.
A F Bravery


The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced.
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick


Research on the effects of wood preservatives on the physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)
1985 - IRG/WP 3351
This research work was conducted with the aim of using preservatives such as Basilit and Wolman Salts with Iranian beech and to study any physical and mechanical changes these might have on the beech species of Iran. Samples were divided into three groups; one group were used as untreated controls, the second group was treated with Basilit and the third group was treated with Wolmanit. Results obtained according to the AFNOR French system of standards were: (1) After 140 days the moisture content of each group had reached 7.3%. (2) Samples with Wolmanit absorbed twice as much as those with Basilit and the two groups has some differences in specific gravity. (3) The volumetric shrinkage of wood preserved with Wolmanit was one fifth of that treated with Basilit. (4) In bending tests the samples treated with Wolmanit had more strength up to point of rupture than those preserved with Basilit. (5) The modulus of elasticity was more in samples preserved with Basilit than in those preserved with Wolmanit. (6) In compression parallel to the grain the samples impregnated with Basilit had more resistance than in those impregnated with Wolmanit. (7) In tension tests, the samples preserved with Basilit were stronger than those treated with Wolmanit. (8) In impact bending tests, the Basilit samples were stronger than the the Wolmanit ones. (9) In hardness tests, the resistance to indentation was less with the samples treated with Basilit than with those treated with Wolmanit; the Basilit seems to make the wood softer and from this result this type of treated wood could be recommended for use by carpenters and in woodworking shops.
P Niloufari


Durability of different heat treated materials from industrial processes in ground contact
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40312
In this study the durability of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment processes in ground contact was examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. All heat treated materials showed significantly increased durability against decay in ground contact compared to untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), independent from the different heat treatment processes. After four years of field testing, heat treated material appears to be not suitable for in ground contact application, since long service life is required. In analogy to the classification of natural durability (EN 350-1, 1994), durability classes in the range from 2 (durable) to 4 (slightly durable) were achieved by the different heat treated materials. This stands in contrast to statements of suppliers, who promote their material as suitable for in ground applications.
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


The effects of heat treatment on the toughness of beech wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40283
The effects of heat treatment on toughness of beech (Fagus orientalis) wood naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 5 x 5 x 5 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at three different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C and 180 °C) and three different durations (2 h, 6 h and 10 h) under air atmospheres. The results indicated that the toughness values treated by heating generally exhibited a decrease with increasing the exposure durations and temperatures compared to the untreated wood samples.
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, Ali Temiz, E Dizman


Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


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