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Detection and Assessment Healthy Situation of Poulus Euphratica Oliv. with Stress Wave
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20415
The defects of tree trunk of Poulus euphratica Oliv were inspected by stress wave method and diagnosed with transmission time and velocity. The reference values of transmission time of unit length and velocity from stress wave were used to assess the healthy situation of tree trunk. The goal is provide fast inspecting technology and assessment method for the historic trees in China. The results shown: 1) Single-path method of stress wave is effective nondestructive method to diagnoses the defect of wood, but it can not effective assess wetwood in standing trees using the reference value of unit length transmission time (670 m/s )and average velocity (942 m/s), there would have more accurate assessment results if reference value be summarized from sound wood and used to diagnoses healthy situation of tree trunk; 2) Two directions testing of stress wave can not accurate diagnose the edge crack and small area decay in stem, multitude point test should be used to get more useful information of wood ; 3) the multitude point test from single-path stress wave shown that the trend of velocity of healthy tree trunk was increasing firstly with the angle increase and decreasing when the transmission angle more than 180o. There has a binomial formula relationship between velocity and transmission angle and the correlation coefficient arrived at 0.9942. This velocity trend of cross-section in healthy tree trunk and binomial formula can be used to diagnoses the defects of tree trunk.
Shanqing Liang, Nana Hu, Lanying Lin, Feng Fu

Some characteristics of Pinus radiata wood from trees subjected to resin extraction
1987 - IRG/WP 3403
35 year old Pinus radiata trees growing in La Puntilla (lat. 37° south, long. 72,4° west), Chile, were subjected to resin extraction 5 years ago. After harvesting them simultaneously with control trees of the same place and age, probes were taken from the bottom of each pole, at 3.4 m, 7.8 m and 11.4 m height. Analysis of ethanol/benzene extract, CCA salt penetration tests and sapstain and brown-rot development rate were performed. The extract content differed in both groups. In the ascendent sense it decreases in unextracted trees and increases in extracted. CCA salt penetration was deeper in treated trees than in untreated. Wood subjectect to resin extraction was less susceptible to sapstain development. No significant difference was detected in both groups in relation to the development of brown-rot.
M C Rose, J Navarrete, G Sandoval, A Bedoya, L Ortega, R Zurita

In-situ pressure injection for preservation of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muel Arg.)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3688
Rubber wood is widely used for the manufacture of furniture, doors for housing and packing cases. However in an untreated condition it is highley susceptible to sapstain and decay fungi and borers. Its utility gets considerably reduced if the wood is not treated well in time. Preservative treatment has to be given within the period of felling and transport to prevent not only loss of structural properties and wood material. Although Boucherie, hot-cold bath diffusion, pressure impregnation, vacuum-pressure impregnation processes for treating timbers have been successfully employed for protection, but the process in cumbersome and difficult to adopt at the site of extraction. Hence, it was found necessary to evolve a simple and convenient method to treat trees in-Situ. A simple pressure injection technique was adopted to treat the standing tree using an instrument designed at the Institute (IWST). This instrument is easy to operate and inexpensive. It was observed that the movement of preservatives was satisfactory and effective. Samples of wood taken from treated stem of such trees were subjected to attack by brown and white rot fungi in the laboratory. It was observed that wood samples treated with Borax, boric acid and Bavistin (1:1:0.2); Borax, boric acid and Sodium pentachlorophenoxide (1:1.5:1) and Bavistin and Ekalux (0.5:0.5) showed higher resistance to fungi and insect attack compared to boric acid and Borax (1:1) in both laboratory and field conditions. Treated wood also retained natural colour and was free from fungal and insect attack for over 24 months in storage. Studies in this method of treatment of plantations species are in progress.
H S Ananthapadmanabha, V R Sivaramakrishnan

Termiticidal chemicals derived from tropical tree resins
1991 - IRG/WP 1477
To test the hypothesis that defensive chemicals protect tropical primary forest trees against biological attack, a bioassay and fractionation program was conducted in Indonesia. Fresh dipterocarp resins were fed in no-choice tests to Neotermes dalbergiae termites on 4.5 cm filter papers, or tested for inhibition of fungal growth. Fractionation of biologically active resins via flash column chromatography, followed by subsequent bioassay and analytical chemical studies, revealed that several sesquiterpene compounds inhibited fungal growth and killed 50% of test termites in 3-7 days. Toxic fractions contained caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, alloaromadendrene, and other compounds. From the relatively non-toxic a-gurjunene, novel termiticidal compounds were synthesized, indicating the potential for manufacture of insecticides from natural products.
A Messer, K McCormick, D Richardson, Sunjaya, H Hagedorn, J Meinwald

The Pilodyn instrument as a non-destructive tester of the shock resistance of wood
1978 - IRG/WP 2107
A new non-destructive shock resistance tester, the PILODYN, has been developed. The instrument measures the fracture surface area created by a constant amount of energy. It operates by shooting a blunt pin into wood by an exact amount of energy. The penetration depth is read on a scale. A wide field of application is open to a non-destructive shock resistance tester such as: 1) assessment of the residual strength of poles decaying from the outside; 2) laboratory evaluation of biodeteriorated wood; 3) the state of wood foundations and woody pilework; 4) degree of chemical decomposition of wood; 5) degree of thermal decomposition of wood; 6) measurement of the density (strength) of standing trees; 7) measurement of the density (strength) of sawn timber; 8) production control of wood based panel boards. A review of existing test results as well as new results are presented containing items 1, 6 and 7. An evaluation of the potential of the PILODYN is attempted.
P Hoffmeyer

An Historical Roof Timber System in the Old Town of Berlin-Spandau
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10949
In Europe the “Charter of Venice” was enacted on the 31st of May 1964. It is the international directive for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments. All countries in Europe now involve professional wood scientists and engineers in maintaining and preserving historical buildings. Here we discuss a restoration project involving 17th century roof timbering. This project may be used as a model for the restoration of other wooden historical monuments.
M Luke, W Unger, D Nellessen

Examining environmental conditions and the biodeterioration of historic waterlogged wood: the Kolding Cog
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10441
Survival of waterlogged wood from thousands and in rare cases millions of years presents scientists with a unique opportunity to examine wood specimens which, due to select properties of the wood itself and/or the depositional environment, have not been completely degraded. This paper discusses the biodeterioration of a submerged shipwreck buried in Kolding Fjord, Denmark for the past 1000 years. Sections taken from two waterlogged timbers within the wreck site were physically evaluated to determine the extent of degradation in the timber at various depths below the sediment-water interface. The condition of the wood specimens was then compared to environmental characteristics, such as oxygen, hydrogen-ion (pH), and sulfide concentrations. The baseline of information gained from the systematic study of these timbers provides valuable information for the future storage and conservation of the shipwreck.
B A Jordan, D J Gregory, E L Schmidt

Site characteristics impacting historic waterlogged wood: A review
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10344
Survival of waterlogged wood from hundreds and in rare cases millions of years presents scientists with a unique opportunity to examine wood specimens which, due to select properties of the wood itself and/or the depostional environment, have not been completely degraded. Although degradation patterns of various types of microbial wood decay have been studied in detail, the site parameters of the zone from which the wood was removed has not been systematically characterized and correlated to the specific types and cause of degradation. Studies have been conducted attempting to relate factors such as hydrogen-ion concentration (pH), redox potential (Eh), oxygen (O2) concentration, and chemical end-member concentration to specific environments, but there has been no unification of testing methodology. This paper proposes to review the literature concerning site characteristics that impact the biodegradation of historic submerged wood, and discuss the implication of such research to future needs for further advancement of the science.
B A Jordan, E L Schmidt

Decay resistance of Siberian larch wood against brown rot fungus. - Part 3. The variation between plus trees and their grafted clones
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10350
The aim of the study was to estimate the variation in the decay resistance of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) wood using mature plus trees and their grafted clones. Samples were collected with an increment core borer from 11 original plus trees and their 25-year-old grafted seed orchard clones. A typical brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw. 15), was used as the decaying organism. The mass loss after 6 weeks' incubation was observed. The results showed that the fast growing wood of the grafts was more susceptible to decay than the wood of the original plus tree. The results showed also radial variation within the mature plus tree logs: the inner part of the heartwood was more susceptible to decay than the outer part of the heartwood. The main advantages of decaying the increment core samples were the possibilities to study standing trees, and to screen large numbers of samples at reasonable costs.
H Viitanen, L Paajanen, M Venäläinen, A Harju, P Velling

Database of sapstain fungi affecting lumber, logs and trees
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10534
Sapstain fungi discolour lumber, logs and tree sapwood and are often mistaken for moulds, which cause a superficial discoloration. Stained wood has a lower market value. Further, because stained wood products can potentially carry pathogenic fungi, such products may be refused by importing countries. Addressing these issues involves developing ways for accurately identifying staining fungi, documenting how they are geographically distributed, and developing ways of monitoring fungal transfer in wood products. To respond to these needs we are constructing an “Ophiostomatoid fungi” database that will be accessible via Internet. The objective is to provide university, industry, and government agency with a resource that offers key information pertinent to trade and environmental issues. The database includes information on the genera Ceratocystis, Ceratocystiopsis, Leptographium, and Ophiostoma. To support identifying isolates, it has a flexible taxonomy / morphology search tool that gives access to detailed descriptions of fungal characteristics, micrographs and diagrams. Each fungal species is described by morphological and molecular characteristics, physiology, habitat, and geographic distribution. To support molecular identification, sequence data are directly linked to NCBI/Genbank data pages. To support work on fungi in forests, wood and wood products, links connect to websites of insects which can vector fungi, of trees, and of mycology. We seek national and international partners who will actively contribute to improving and expanding this resource.
S Lee, F de Giuli Vallverdu, S Alamouti, Jae-Jin Kim, A Uzunovic, C Breuil

Practical considerations of the Formosan subterranean termite in Louisiana: A 50-year-old problem
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10330
In an eleven-year censusing (1989 through 1999) in the French Quarter of New Orleans and surrounding areas, Coptotermes formosanus alate numbers were found to be increasing dramatically in all years but one. Moreover, in parks and neighborhoods in New Orleans and Lake Charles, LA, as well as in Sam Houston Jones State Park near Lake Charles surveyed in 1998, alarmingly high numbers of this exotic pest were observed infesting live trees. Termite baits and non-repellent termiticides have shown the most promise as practical weapons to combat the unprecedented termite problem in Louisiana. As a result of Federal and Louisiana State Government funding, termite treatments that offer population reduction are being intensively researched, improved upon and rapidly employed in large scale field tests in Louisiana. Over $20,000,000 dollars has been appropriated from 1998 to 2000, to develop new and employ existing tools to fight the Formosan subterranean termite. Fifteen public schools in Orleans, Jefferson and St. Bernard Parishes are being used in a study to evaluate the ability of two bait systems and one non-repellent termiticide to reduce termite populations. In an attempt to reduce the high labor costs associated with bait systems, a signaling device was invented by the author and J. K Paxson that indicates when termites are present in a bait. Application technology using non-repellent termiticides was also developed for treatment of infested trees. In 2000, 300,000 trees will be drilled by pest control operators and injection of a foam solution of fipronil or imidacloprid will be attempted. The Louisiana Formosan Termite Task Force Technical Committee is considering ways to implement a wood treatment program for new home construction, and quarantine measures to stop the movement of termites to new areas via the transport of infested wood, especially railroad ties and telephone poles.
G Henderson

PCP in aquatic environments arising from historic contamination at wood processing and preservation sites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-14
Three different studies are reported that assess the impacts of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aquatic environments arising from its historic use at sawmilling and wood preservation sites. These studies involved New Zealand wood processing facilities, and collectively they aimed to measure the transport of PCP from sawmill sites into the aquatic environment, determine the background environmental concentration of PCP in isolated lakes of New Zealand, and assess the relative contribution of PCP from different potential sources, such as sawmills, urban areas and agricultural catchments. The PCP concentrations in water, sediment and biota from a lake catchment, near a major wood processing site, indicated that low level contamination had occurred. PCP levels in lake sediments and freshwater mussels were elevated compared to New Zealand remote lake sites but similar to comparable locations reported in the international literature. Water concentrations of PCP in the lake were less than the most stringent international water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Water and sediment PCP concentrations in streams within the catchment, isolated from point sources, were less than the detection limit. The PCP concentration found in sediments ( £ 1.3 ng.g-1 DW) from the remote lakes, reflects a New Zealand background concentration. The source of PCP in remote lake sites is unknown, though it is unlikely to be directly from the sawmilling industry. Although the historic use of PCP by the sawmilling industry appears to have caused localised contamination near areas of high use, the current evidence suggests that it has not lead to widespread contamination of New Zealand aquatic environments.
J S Gifford, P N McFarlane, M C Judd, S M Anderson

Analysis of the boron content of preservative treated oak and pitch pine heartwood before and after leaching
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3697
Studies to determine the effects, if any, of a variety of boron formulations on heartwood of English oak and American Pitch pine have been previously reported (King et al (1991)). Small wood blocks were treated, at 10°C or 45°C, with borax, polybor or Boracol 20 for periods of 1 month or 4 months then analysed or continuously leached with tap water for a period of 1 month. Reported results showed minor dimensional changes coupled with some weight loss in most test blocks. The boron contents of all blocks have been analysed by the spectrophotometric method of (Williams (1968)). Although an average of 92% boron was lost many of the treated blocks still retained a protective level of boron (>0.04% B). Boron concentrations left in the leached/treated blocks relate to wood species, block orientation, overall weight loss and type of formulation. The results presented in this paper provide further evidence for the applicability of boron formulations to historic timbers and indicate that even in situations of some moisture movement protection may still be afforded by boron treatments.
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, B King

Effects of boron formulation on specific timber types used in ships of historical importance
1991 - IRG/WP 3676
This paper reports results of preservative treatment and leaching experiments, using borax, polybor and boracol 20, on small wood blocks of English oak and American pitch pine heartwood. Earlier experiments on the performance of various biocides as possible additives to bilgewater to prevent fungal decay of shipping timbers had suggested that some formulations of boron might be associated with physical changes to specific types of timber. Since samples of oak and pitch pine were to be supplied for remedial work on the historic ship RRS Discovery it became important to investigate more critically the effects of boron on such timbers. Variable factors investigated in this study included temperature, sample type, soaking time in preservative and time of leaching. Weight changes and dimensional changes were measured. Preliminary results indicate that there was little effect, at 10°C, on block weight or dimension. Some changes were found at 45°C indicating that the results obtained in earlier experiments may be unrepresentative of those which might be obtained when the biocide is used under service conditions.
B King, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, S McCutcheon

Some studies on natural resistance of different trees and prevention of infestation by termites through use of industrial effluents at Karor, Layyah, Pakistan
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10637
The experiments were conducted to determine natural resistance/susceptibility in woods of Jaman (Syzygium cumini), Kikar (Acacia nilotica Willd.), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.), Poplar (Populus deltoids), Semal (Bombax ceiba) and Sufaida (Euclyptus camaldulensis) against subterranean termites’ infestation at Karor, Layyah, Pakistan. Wood stakes of these trees (30x12x3cm) were buried in soil and percentage infestation was recorded after 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 days. Wood stakes were put inn sun drying kiln made of glass from three sides. Woods of kikar and Jaman remained free from termites’ infestation until 80 days whereas a range of 6.26 to 18.14% infestation was recorded on other woods during this period. Application of industrial effluents (textile, tannery and fertilizer) showed significant reduction in infestation percentage and weight loss in woods of Shisham, Semal, poplar and Sufaida. Woods treated with textile waste had comparatively and significantly less infestation and weight loss as compared to control wood in all cases. The possibility of application of these wastes on woods of different trees has been discussed in reference to the site of studies.
S Ahmed, M Arshad Ejaz, M Asam Riaz, A Hussain

Quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., induced by insects from forest to utility
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10647
In this study, some quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., induced by insects from forest to utility were evaluated. In experimental plots, volume of trees damaged by Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) was 34% of the volume of total standing spruce trees in the oriental spruce forests of Turkey. The volume of standing trees that D. micans damaged was 900,7 m3. The volume of trees that the damage was continuing was 451,4 m3 and trees that were cut in the last decade have a volume of 274,9 m3. According to this result, in the 120.000 ha epidemic area of D. micans, 22,8 million m3 standing trees were damaged by the beetle and damage was continuing in 11,43 million m3 standing trees. A total of 6,96 million m3 trees were cut in the last decade. A total of 437 standing spruce trees were evaluated and 40 of them were cut in 0,87 ha in the areas with severe Ips typographus (L.) damage. The average beetle number per tree was 11.432, 18.739, 37.208, 14.447 and 12.380 in the years 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Volume of the damaged standing trees in the experimental plots and 15.000 ha spruce forest area where these plots locate in was calculated as 280 m3 and 4,8 million m3, respectively. Volume of heavily infested trees in the experimental plots and whole epidemic area was 120 m3 and 2,2 million m3, respectively. Total volume of damaged standing trees in hectare and heavily infested trees was 314,6 m3 and 151,4 m3, respectively. Volume of damaged trees and heavily infested trees was 9,43 million m3 and 4,54 million m3 in the 30.000 ha epidemic area, respectively.
H A Akinci, M Eroglu, G E Özcan, Ü C Yildiz

An Important Wood Destroying Beetle: Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Distribution of Western Black Sea region
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10666
Anobium punctatum (De Geer) is an economically important insect species regarding damage to wooden structures. The damage mostly occurs in historic wooden buildings, wooden chairs, tables and seats. It has been determined in the Istanbul, Ankara, Ayancik, Bartin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumushane and Gole regions of Turkey. There is no detailed study in terms of the distribution of this insect and the degree of its damage in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. In this study, it was determined that furniture beetle is intensively widespread in the region.
A Toper Kaygin, Y Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, S M Onat, N K Özkazanç, B Kaygin, S Çelíkyay

Penetration Depth of Borates in Historic Wooden Structures in Virginia City Montana
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30475
Virginia City, Montana contains some of the best preserved examples of gold boom construction in the United States. Unfortunately, even the dry climate and fortuitous lack of fire have not prevented decay from claiming parts of the historic fabric. This project aims to determine if borates should be integrated into the preservation plan of the Montana Heritage Commission. Solutions of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) were tested in both new and historic lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in a fashion that mimics remedial treatments likely carried out in the field. DOT (available commercially as Tim-Bor Professional from Rio Tinto Mineral or Nisus Corporation) and glycol borate (DOT in a proprietary mixture of glycols including polyethylene glycol, available commercially as Bora-Care® from Nisus Corporation) solutions were tested.
A A Turner

Variations of Furfuryl alcohol and Wolmanit CX-8 treatability of pine sapwood within and between trees
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40421
The variations on the ratio of filling (RoF) were investigated on Norwegian grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The samples were taken from 10 different stands in south-east Norway, and treated with furfuryl alcohol and a copper-containing wood preservative. Both within tree variations, between tree variations and variations between stands were investigated for significant differences. Factors like horizontal and vertical positioning of the stem, annual ring width, density, tree height, tree age and latitude were tested. Samples of 20 x 20 x 60 mm were impregnated with a mild treatment scheme to avoid full penetration, which made it possible to distinguish the RoF. A significant variation was found between copper impregnated a furfuryl treated samples, favouring the copper impregnated samples. Within tree variations show a positive significance of the first log compared to the other logs, and a higher RoF in younger sapwood. The latitude of the stand gave a strong correlation, favouring southern stands.
E Larnøy, S Lande, G I Vestøl

Natural Durability of Some Heartwood from European and Tropical African Trees against Marine Organisms
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10682
This study aims to investigate the natural marine durability of some tropical and domestic wood species in marine environment. A total of 33 tree species, comprising 18 European and 15 tropical originated trees were exposed to marine conditions in 6 meters depth for a period of 14 months at east and west Black sea, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Marmara coasts. The results indicated that wood species which have rich extractive material content showed high marine durability. European tree species were severely attacked by boring organisms. It was showed that a positive correlation between the amount of extractive material and marine durability. Tropic African species, (Lophira alata, Nauclea diderichii, Tieghemella heckelii, Chlorophora excelsa, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Millettia laurentii) consisting of high natural durability were slightly degraded by organisms. The highest attack was observed in the industrial harbors. Five boring and 26 fouling species were identified in marine borers tested wood samples in this study. The two molluscan boring species, Teredo navalis and Lyrodus pedicellatus were present at all harbour sites, but Nototeredo norvegica occurred only industrial harbours; Bankia carinata, and the crustacean wood borer Limnoria tripunctata at only Mediterranean harbours.
S Sen, H Sivrikaya, M Yalçın

The amazing wooden churches from Northern Romania - learning from the past, restoring for the future, preserving the present valuable heritage of forgotten wood building tradition
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10683
The beauty and the uniqueness of the north-western region of Romania called “Maramureş” are well known in Europe. Surrounded by mountains, the region remained to some extend isolated from modern influences, preserving the local village architecture and craftsman traditions learnt and passed on from generation to generation. Local folklore and past heritage sets you back centuries ago when the manual work and wood in particular was the only way to build. Wood construction with specific architecture has developed in this region. Houses and churches were erected in a way in which even today some of these building are still standing and integrate nicely with the landscape. As always good time and bad time are cycles in the human history and time have its impact on the any wooden construction. Restoring and preserving these unique wooden churches from Maramureş is not only a necessity for the local people but an honour and duty in order to preserve their heritage and traditions. In this study, a biological evaluation of the aged and destroyed wood from an historical wooden church from Maramureş, Romania, recently restored, is being investigated and discussed. The aged oak material used in the initial construction is compared with today’s oak wood material available on the market. The option of using VPT treated wood as a material of choice for restoring these monuments are being suggested and eventually considered as a recommendation. The knowledge, the talent and the traditional craftsman type of work used in building these churches are slowly disappearing and somehow needs to be preserved by maintaining this knowledge through restoration work. The question which remains to be answered is whether this material will last centuries like the original one used for construction?
R Craciun, R Möller

DNA-based tools for rapidly detecting, quantifying and monitoring ophiostomatoid fungi on beetles, in trees and wood products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20450
Approximately half of the trees harvested for commercial purposes are lost because of native or introduced insects or insect-vectored microorganisms. Ophiostomatoid fungi, which are well adapted to dissemination by insects, include ~140 species of saprobes and pathogens. They are present worldwide, have high economical impact and many are subject to quarantine regulation. Thus, it is necessary to quickly and efficiently characterize which fungi are associated with beetles, host trees, and wood products, and to establish the relative degree of damage or quarantine risk associated with these pests. During the past decade, molecular biology approaches have provided diverse DNA-based diagnostic tools that have gradually made their way into forestry and forest products industries. Such tools are typically sensitive, able to detect pests without the need to grow the microorganisms and able to provide quick answers. The new tools are rapidly becoming the new standard for detecting, monitoring and quantifying pests worldwide. In this paper we will review the molecular techniques available, as well as some of our own results, discussing issues like single and multiple gene amplification, sequencing and phylogeny, genetic markers to differentiate species or individual in a species, quantitative PCR and meta-genomic sequencing.
L Khadempour, Young Woon Lim, S Massoumi Alamouti, C Breuil

Use of Internal Remedial Treatment to Extend Wood Life at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30525
The condition of wood in a reconstructed fur trading fort was assessed over a 30 year period. Poor initial treatment had resulted in the development of extensive early decay. While supplemental treatment with chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate had arrested the attack, the results suggested that remedial treatments were unable to completely overcome the initial problems associated with treatment. The results show both the value and limitations of using remedial treatments in these applications.
C S Love, C Freitag, J J Morrell

Analysis of phenolic extractives from various Tunisian species trees -Study of its potential valorisation
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30552
Phenol extractives are naturally synthesized compounds taken from several trees. It is well demonstrated that the presence of phenol compounds is positively correlated with the durability of wood. This property is very interesting for outdoor uses of wood with a limited treatment. Phenol compounds may also be used in the formulation of glue. In the aim to improve the knowledge on Mediterranean trees, we studied the concentration of condensed tannins in 6 species commonly present in the Tunisian countryside: Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia Atlantica, Ceratonia siliqua, Rhus tripartitum, Punica Granatum. The study was limited to leaves, bark, roots and fruit in order to avoid cutting the trees and preserve them for future industrial uses. Phenolic compound were analysed by the Folin Ciocalteu method, Proanthocyanidin by the vanillin method and GC analysis. Biocide performance on agar-agar was tested with fungi rot. The total phenol concentration of the samples were between 1,8% (bark of Pistacia atlantica) and 15% (bark of Punica granatum). Poranthocyanidin represented 41 % of the Punica granatum bark. Biocide tests confirm positive correlation between extractive contents and fungi rot growth limitation for the bark of fruit of the Punica granatum.
I Oueslati, F Charrier, K Seffah, A Moubarik, N Ayed, A Zerizer, B Charrier

Chemical protection of historic timber structures: Results and future needs
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40487
The paper concentrates on the analysis of the effectiveness of chemical protection for timber structures in the Russian State Museums “Kizhi” (Karelia) and “Vitoslavlitsy” (Novgorod). The condition of historic timber was tested at the monuments treated with PCP, borax, potassium carbonate, boric acid, Pinotex chemicals in the 1970-80. Long-term analysis revealed that in many cases the deep-treatment with PCP and borax chemicals proved to be efficient only for a short period of time. Profound activity of wood-borers was noted in the structures deep-treated with preservative chemicals. Deep treatment caused emergence of new cracks of timber and enlargement of existed ones. Changes in absorption and desorption processes are occurred. Changes in color are easily seen in a majority of the treated monuments. The treatment also deteriorated the ecological situation. Modern chemicals (Rocima-243, Rocima-293, ULTAN (CCA-type), Ventti, etc.) were tested on pilot structures established in the “Kizhi” museum in 2005. The results of the microscopical investigation of the samples after 3-year - long exposure are given. The chemicals appropriate for restoration and conservation of wooden architectural monuments are presented. The need of environmentally save approaches to preserve an essential part of our cultural heritage – historical wooden structures is emphasized.
M Kisternaya, V Kozlov

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