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Aislamiento, identificación y evaluación enzimática de hongos de pudrición de madera de la Región de los Lagos
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10680
So far, systematic investigations have not been developed to determine the fungal diversity associated with wood in Chile. In addition, little is known about the mycoflora capabilities or their enzymatic processes in biotechnology although different research has hinted at the great potential of these microorganisms in various industrial processes. The aim of this work is to isolate, identify and enzymatically evaluate wood decay fungi present in national parks located in Chile’s Región de los Lagos. The research will be divided into three stages: isolation, identification and qualitative enzymatic evaluation of the microorganisms. A classification of the identified fungi according to the enzymatic activity observed (cellulotic, hemicelullotic, peroxidase, or laccase activities) is expected to be generated. This paper contains the research methodology and literature review of this project. En la actualidad no se han desarrollado investigaciones sistemáticas que permitan determinar la diversidad fúngica presente en maderas de Chile. Así mismo, el conocimiento acerca de sus capacidades enzimáticas y aplicabilidad en procesos biotecnológicos ha sido parcialmente desarrollado. No obstante lo anterior, diversos antecedentes muestran un gran potencial de estos microorganismos en diferentes procesos industriales. El objetivo de este trabajo es aislar, identificar y evaluar enzimáticamente los hongos de pudrición obtenidos de maderas presentes en parques nacionales ubicados en la región de los Lagos en Chile. La investigación, para el logro del objetivo planteado, será dividida en tres etapas: aislación, identificación y evaluación enzimática cualitativa de los microorganismos. A partir de este trabajo se espera conocer la micoflora existente en la zona bajo estudio. Así como también clasificar, según la actividad enzimática observada, las especies de hongos identificados.
R Ortiz, J Navarrete, C Oviedo, R Blanchette

Selección de hongos reductores de extraíbles del género Ophiostoma, mediante la prueba de opacidad Tween 80
2009 - IRG/WP 08-10677
Wood extractives cause diverse problems in the industry of the wood, the pulp and the paper; among others, they produce pitch deposition during the pulp manufacturing, generating important economic losses for the sector. Recently, to mitigate these effects, it has been proposed the biological pretreatment of chips and the solid wood with colorless fungi of different species from genus Ophiostoma. Although to the date the results have been promissory, these have shown the necessity to look for new strains that improve effectiveness of the biological treatment. The procedures used for the search of new reducing strains of extractives, are extensive and highly intensive in the use of resources. The aim of the present study was the search of a simple and fast methodology that it allows to find a test concerning laboratory that allows establishing a correlation between these tests and the effectiveness of the biological pretreatment on industrial scale. The detection of strains of fungi with the majors production rates of lipolitic enzymes appears on the matter like an interesting alternative. The results of opacity of Tween 80 test showed that by means of the measurement of the radius of the halos produced in this solid means, the strains of the species O. floccosum has better production rates of lipolitic enzymes that the strain of the species O. piliferum and O. piceae, which agrees with the results obtained for the reduction of extractives in wood of radiata pine. Extraíbles de la madera provocan diversos problemas en la industria de la madera, la pulpa y el papel; entre otros, provocan la generación de pitch durante el proceso de pulpaje, generando importantes pérdidas económicas para el sector. Recientemente se ha propuesto, para mitigar estos efectos, el biotratamiento de las astillas y de la madera sólida con cepas albinas de distintas especies del género Ophiostoma. Aunque a la fecha los resultados han sido promisorios, éstos han mostrado la necesidad de buscar nuevas cepas que mejoren las bondades del biotratamiento. Los procedimientos utilizados para la búsqueda de nuevas cepas reductoras de extraíbles, son extensos y altamente intensivos en el uso de recursos. La presente investigación tiene como propósito la búsqueda de una metodología simple y rápida que permita encontrar un ensayo a escala de laboratorio que permita establecer una correlación entre estos ensayos y la efectividad del biotratamiento a escala real. La detección de cepas de hongos con las mayores tasas de producción de enzimas lipolíticas aparece al respecto como una interesante alternativa. Los resultados de la prueba de opacidad del Tween 80  mostraron que mediante la medición del radio de los halos producidos en este medio sólido, las cepas albinas de la especie O. floccosum tienen mejores tasas de producción de enzimas lipolíticas que las cepas de las especies O. piliferum y O. piceae, lo que concuerda con los resultados obtenidos para la reducción de extraíbles en madera de pino radiata.
P Herrera, J Navarrete, C Breuil, E Werner

Evaluation of two populations of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud (Isoptera) by triple mark-recapture procedure
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10237
The optimisation and use of biocides is linked to the improvement in our understanding of the target organism. With this in mind we have studied 2 populations of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud. The first inhabiting an urban territory, the trees lining Ave. Boutroux in Paris. The colony has been estimated at 1,200,000 +/- 130,000 insects by triple mark-recapture procedure, foraging a surface of 1080 m2. The area containing visible damages in the trees is of 2,100 m2. The greatest distance covered by an individual is 65 m in 18 days. The second is a field population at Fondette near Tours. The zone studied is of 2,500 m2, the colony being estimated at 230,000 +/- 14,000 insects, foraging a surface of 145 m2. The greatest distance covered by an individual is 40 m in 13 days. This study shows that a termite worker can cover a considerable distance in a short time and that the colonies themselves seem to move within a zone that they cannot totally exploit permanently.
I Paulmier, B Vauchot, A-M Pruvost, C Lohou, M Tussac, M Jéquel, J-L Leca, J-L Clément

Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot

Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe

Effects in vivo of various tensides (surface-active agents) on Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10417
The results of studies of surface active agents (tensides, surfactants) on the feeding behavior and mortality of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud are described. The effects of these agents on the nature and relative populations of eight gut-inhabiting symbionts are also examined. Among the various tensides tested, bee's poison was the most effective in causing rapid termite death. All surfactants were detrimental to the flagellated symbionts. The differences in magnitude and rapidity of the symbionticidal effects are described and discussed.
W Unger

Laboratory tests on natural resistance to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) attack of native hardwoods for crossarms production
1985 - IRG/WP 1266
Eletropaulo (Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S/A) and IPT (Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A) are carrying on a study to evaluate wood species for crossarms in replacement of Aspidosperma polyneuron - Apocynaceae (Peroba-rosa) traditionally used for this purpose. Nineteen Amazon wood species were elected, with physical and mechanical properties equal or better than those presented by Peroba-rosa. Biological tests with these woods and physical tests of crossarms were carried out. Here is presented the results of the resistance test to Cryptotermes brevis attack.
M D Canedo, A T De Lelis

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma

Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya

Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada

Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30228
Although creosote, or coal tar creosote, has been the choice of preservative treatment for the railroad industry since the 1920s, exuding or "bleeding" on the surface of creosote-treated products has been one incentive for further enhancements in creosote production and utility (Crawford et al., 2000). To minimize this exuding problem, laboratories such as Koppers Industries Inc., USA, and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Chemical and Wood Technology, Melbourne, Australia, have developed changes in processing of coal tar that produce distillates with fewer contaminants. This "clean distillate" is then used to formulate "clean creosote" as a preservative. These new, unique creosote formulations are being investigated as part of a program to enhance the use of regionally important wood species in the United States. Four retention levels of each of two new creosote formulations creosote, one pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC) and one creosote formulation that meets the AWPA Standard C2-95 for P1/P13 creosote (AWPA, 1995a), were applied to two softwood species and two hardwood species. Two laboratory procedures, the soil-block and fungal cellar tests (accelerated field simulator), were used to evaluate the four creosote formulations. These procedures characterized the effectiveness of the wood preservatives. The soil-block tests were used to determine the minimum threshold level of the preservative necessary to inhibit decay by pure cultures of decay fungi. In general, the soil block tests showed there was little difference in the ability of the four creosote formulations to prevent decay at the three highest retention levels as summarized in a previous report by Crawford and DeGroot (1996). The soil-block tests will not be discussed in this report. Fungal cellar tests expose treated wood to mixtures of soil-borne fungi that promote accelerated attack. Crawford and DeGroot (1996) discussed the evaluation of the creosote formulations after 17 months of exposure in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), fungal cellar. At that point in time data from the fungal cellar tests showed that softwoods are protected better than hardwoods for all four formulations of creosote tested. This report will discuss exposure of the fungal cellar stakes upto 36 months. In addition, field stake tests are being used to verify service life of the new creosote formulations in vivo. Results from accelerated tests are indicative of field performance, but the correlation between laboratory and field results is still being investigated. Field stake tests are regarded as critical, long-term evaluations that provide results most directly related to the performance of treated products in service. In this study, we report on the performance of the creosote formulations after five years of exposure in field tests.
D M Crawford, P K Lebow, R C De Groot

Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas

Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compared with the undergraded.
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas

Nouvelles techniques de lutte anti-termites à faible impact environnemental
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-32
P Martinet

La rôle de l'expert dans l'évaluation toxicologique
1990 - IRG/WP 3589
C Boudene

Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger

Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1980 - IRG/WP 279
G Castan

Imprégnation de bois ronds par déplacement de sève à Madagascar
1975 - IRG/WP 352
M Fougerousse, P Guéneau

Scientific development for prolonging the service life of timbers by impregnating with creosote or organic solvent type preservatives in which additive has been incorporated
1977 - IRG/WP 382
Chemically impregnated wood has played a prominent part in the Telephone and Electricity Distribution Industry during the past century and there is no doubt that it will play an equally prominent part in the future. The reasons why wood poles and wooden, structures predominate, are that when adequately chemically impregnated with a recognised timber preservative to ensure the expected service life for the purpose envisaged, the timber is then fully protected against the ravages of wood destructive organisms. Furthermore, wood is endowed with many natural characteristics that make it a favourite pole and structural material. Its high strength, light weight, ability to absorb impact or shock from loads suddenly applied and ability to resist overloading for brief periods plus its well-known insulating qualities - all are important basic reasons for its predominance in pole line structure. The use of chemically impregnated timber often makes it possible to carry out a given construction programme at less cost, or to erect more structures for a given sum of money, than when more expensive construction materials are employed.
P R B D De Bruin

Système informatisé d'aide à la décision pour la gestion de la migration du pentachlorophénol dans l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-10
This paper describes a Decision Support System (DSS), concerning pentachlorophenol (PCP) migration in the environment. The principal objectives of the DSS are to assist managers in siting of PCP-treated poles in the Hydro-Québec system and the storage areas and in the treatment of customer complaints. Four mathematical models are incuded in the system: a model simulating migration inside and on the surface of the pole, a model simulating migration in soil, a model simulating runoff and a model simulating migration in groundwater. Factors influencing the migration of PCP in the environment are discussed.
G Lefebvre, J-C Tessier

Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete

Procédé de valorisation par gazéification des bois imprégnés réformés
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-20
L'arsenic occupant une place prépondérante dans les biocides employés à l'échelon mondial pour la préservation du bois, il convient d'en assurer le recyclage dans des conditions de protection optimale de la santé humaine et de l'environnement. En France le gisement principal est représenté par les parcs de poteaux en bois supports de lignes électriques basse tension et téléphoniques avec : . 4,5 Millions de poteaux pour EDF dont 1/5 imprégnés CCA et une moyenne de 0,1 millions réformés chaque année, . 15 millions pour FRANCE TELECOM dont 4/5 imprégnés CCA et une moyenne de 0,3 millions réformés chaque année. Les poteaux non traités par des substances minérales sont en grande majorité imprégnés de créosote, produit organique de coupes de distillation des goudrons de houille ou de résidus pétroliers. La créosote est également l'agent d'imprégnation des traverses en bois de chemin de fer dont SNCF réforme en moyenne 0,9 millions chaque année. Une solution industrielle permettant de résoudre, à un coût raisonnable, le problème posé par ces bois imprégnés réformés est vivement souhaitée par l'ensemble des acteurs de la filière bois.
A Lagoutte, A Garnier

Surveillance médicale des personnels exposés aux produits de préservation du bois
1990 - IRG/WP 3588
J-C Aubrun

Questionnaire pour la préparation de fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores
1972 - IRG/WP 103 F
C Jacquiot

Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber.
R C De Groot, T L Highley

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