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Tar-oil uptake vs time in immersion treatment of short pine posts: A simple technique applicable to rural communities of Papua New Guinea
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40608
Pinus caribaea and Araucaria cunninghamii logs ca. 100 mm in diameter were shortened to lengths 25-30 cm, conditioned to at/below fibre saturation point (FSP) for immersion/dip treatment using a hot- and- cold bath open- tank process. Before oven-drying and subsequent treatment, individual test specimens were numbered, their green weights and volumes, and dry weights recorded for basic density, void volume, preservative uptake and retention determination. The poles were bundled and immersed (dipped) in a drum containing light tar-oil creosote. The tar-oil creosote with pine specimens was heated to boiling for 30 minutes and flames were extinguished with water to allow cooling. The cooling conditions, (dip time period for treatment) varied from 1, 5, 15 and 24 hours. Theoretically, a vacuum was created in wood during heating and when cooled, tar-oil was drawn into the wood’s anatomical structures. The experiment results indicated that tar-oil uptake and retention increased with dip time until available void volume was filled and no further uptake occurred. In this case, the preservative uptake and retention were proportional with square-root of dip time. The technique was simple with basic materials required for hot and cold bath treatment. This treatment technique is more appropriate for application at rural community level for treatment of utility posts/poles.
B K Gusamo, R Tulo


Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino


Effects of surfactants and ultrasonic energy on the treatment of wood with chromated copper arsenate
1977 - IRG/WP 3108
Sugar pine stakes 1'' x 1" x 16" were treated by a hot-water bath followed by soaking in cold CCA solution for 10 to 30 minutes. A similar number of stakes were treated by a cold-cold bath. Half of the stakes were subjected to ultrasonic energy during the CCA bath. The mean absorption for stakes given the hot-cold bath was 18.52 pcf (297 kg/m³) and 4.64 pcf (74 kg/m³) for those given the cold-cold bath. The rates of absorption were o.323 pcf (5 kg/m³) per minute and 0.053 pcf (0.85 kg/m³) per minute, respectively. The relationship between absorption in pounds per cubic foot (Y) and soaking time in minutes (X); Y = 12.27+0.323 X, was linear and significant. The linear relationship for the cold-cold treatment was poor (r = 0.305). Neither ultrasonic energy, nor its interaction with soaking time, had a significant effect on solution absorption for either the hot-cold or cold-cold treatments. In a second series, the stakes were treated in the CCA solution with a 3-minute dip, a 48-hour cold soak, and Lowry pressure. Half of the stakes were treated in the solution to which a surfactant had been added. The interacting effect of surfactant and method of treatment was significant. The highest absorption was obtained when the specimens were treated with the solution containing the surfactant by the Lowry method, 35.13 pcf (563 kg/m³). In comparison, the absorption was 22.55 pcf (361 kg/m³), 36 percent lower, when surfactant was not used. The surfactant had a beneficial effect on the results of the 3-minute dip, but not the 48-hour soak.
C S Walters


Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada


Problem of the treatment of dried sawn spruce building timbers with water-borne preservatives. Interim reports for discussion at the 4th Annual Meeting in West Berlin on 27 October 1972
1972 - IRG/WP 311
One of the most difficult technical problems facing the preservation industry is how to improve the treatment of refractory species of timber such as spruce. Its resistance to penetration, even under pressure' precludes its use for more hazardous service situations, and even in less severe conditions a higher level of treatment would be desirable. The importance of this subject led us to look once again at possible ways of improving treatment.
W Liese, J W W Morgan, T Hof, R O Ullevålseter


Some relationship between physical characteristics and treatability of Bolivian woods
1987 - IRG/WP 3434
Using the available data on physical characteristics of 25 Bolivian woods, some relationships between porosity, specific gravity and treatability (hot and cold open tank process with 5% pentachlorophenol) were analysed. The aim of this report is to give information on technical characteristics of Bolivian hardwoods which have been studied in this country by Centro de Desarrollo Forestal and in Peru by Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena.
A S Viscarra


Hot and cold treatment in fence posts of Eucalyptus globulus, Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster
1988 - IRG/WP 3489
An analysis is made of the treatment of fence-posts of Eucalyptus globulus, Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster by hot and cold immersion in creosote. The temperatures of the different treatments were 60, 70 and 90°C. The posts were heated for one hour and then allowed to cool for 21 hours 30 min., and finally reheated for 1 hour 30 min. The greatest absorption rates were recorded in Pinus nigra, the results in Pinus pinaster were close, and in Castanea sativa and Eucalyptus globulus they were clearly lower. The highest penetration rates were recorded in Pinus pinaster, followed by Pinus nigra, Eucalyptus globulus and Castanea sativa. The retentions showed the same pattern as the absorptions, but with smaller differences.
C De Arana Moncada, A M Navarrete


Preservative Treatment of simul (Bombax ceiba) Veneers with Hot and Cold Water Solution of borax-boric acid by Soaking Process
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40528
Veneers of simul (Bombax ceiba) were treated with different concentrations of water- borne preservatives borax-boric acid (BB) by soaking process for different time periods. In the case of hot water treatment, it was found that the average retention of preservative chemicals increased gradually with the increasing treatment period from 20 minutes to 60 minutes. Similar trend was observed in the case of cold water treatment when treatment period was increased from 1 day to 3 days. The maximum retention (20.37 kg/m3) was observed from the samples treated with 10% BB solution for 60 minutes and in 2.5% BB treated samples, the average retention gradually increased from 5.35 kg/m3 to 7.16 kg/m3 when treatment duration was varied from 20 to 60 minutes. In the case of cold water treatment, maximum retention (22.97kg/m3) was observed from the veneers treated with 10% BB solution for 3 days and 7.35 kg/m3 retention was obtained when treated with 2.5% Borax-boric acid solution for 1 day. According to the Indian Standard (IS-1902), the retention of 4 kg/m3 boron compounds are sufficient to offer protection for non-structural purposes.
K Akhter, Md Abul Hashem, S Akhter


Ammoniacal wood preservative for use in non-pressure treatment of spruce and aspen poplar. Part 1
1984 - IRG/WP 3273
End-matched lumber of Picea glauca (Moench)Voss (white spruce) and Populus tremuloides Michx. (aspen poplar) timbers was treated by a thermal diffusion process in open tank treating vessels using an ammoniacal copper-arsenate wood preservative. The process proved technically feasible with respect to controlling the vapourization of ammonia from open tanks during treatment at high temperatures. Treatments of 48 hours or more on unseasoned and partially dried lumber produced net oxide retentions above that required by the Canadian Standard Association CSA-080 wood preservation standard for timber in above ground contact situations. Although preservative penetrations did not meet the penetration requirements (10 mm), of the CSA 080.2 standard for ground contact, five of the seven non-pressure charges on spruce lumber had heartwood penetrations greater than 7 mm in depth. A 24-hour treatment on air-dried spruce had penetrations equivalent to a five-hour vacuum-pressure treatment. Retention was adequate for above-ground exposure
C D Ralph, J K Shields


Ammoniacal wood preservatives for use in non-pressure treatment of spruce and aspen poplar. Part 2
1984 - IRG/WP 3274
A series of thermal diffusion treatments were carried out on unseasoned white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) lumber and air dry aspen poplar (Populus tremuloides Michx.) timbers using an ammoniacal copper arsenate wood preservative. Under the specific conditions described, certain charges of lumber met the present Canadian Standards Association Wood Preservation Committee's requirements for wood in ground contact, having 10 mm penetration and 6.4 kg/m³ loading. The average preservative penetration in the heartwood of white spruce lumber ranged from 6.3 mm for charges of nonincised lumber to 13.9 mm for incised lumber. Preservative retention in the treated area was above 6.4 kg/m³ in four of the five charges of spruce lumber treated by this method. Aspen poplar timbers treated by thermal diffusion averaged 16.4 kg/m³ oxide retention. Post-treatment procedures such as close piling the lumber resulted in material with cleaner surfaces and more even penetration of preservative components.
C D Ralph, J K Shields


Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional stability and decay resistance of the benzylated particleboard were evaluated. Particleboards made of benzylated particles having more than 38% of weight percent gain (WPG) showed that dimensional stability and decay resistance were superior to the conventional particleboard made by using phenolformaldehyde resin as a binder, because hydroxyl groups of wood were substituted by hydrophobic benzyl groups with benzylation. Though bending strength of the board was a little lower than control board due to the damage of benzylated particles during benzylation, its internal bonding strength was very high, because the hot-melting strengthened the inter-particle bonding.
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto


Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two preparation techniques agreed in the test to determine the mean percentage of void volume filled by liquid both radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process (i.e. machining, sealing, etc.) of the experimental samples and the period of the data collection was quite longer in CES than that for PES in either flow direction.
I Usta


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used.
P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Effect of a penta emulsion on the service life of Douglas fir, heartwood posts
1978 - IRG/WP 3112
C S Walters


An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain


Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems and process additives. Two main processes for production of furfurylated wood have been developed for WPT (Wood Polymer Technology ASA) by the authors – Kebony 100 for high modification levels of hardwoods and VisorWood for lower modification levels of pine. Commercial production according to the Kebony process has been running since August 2000, mainly for flooring. A small Kebony production plant is now in operation in Lithuania. A larger Kebony/VisorWood production plant started up in September 2003 in Porsgrunn, Norway. Several new plants operating according to the VisorWood process, each with an annual capacity of 10 000 m³ or more, are under construction. The properties of furfurylated wood depend on the retention of grafted/polymerised furfuryl alcohol (PFA) in the wood. At high modification levels (high retention of PFA) the enhancement of a wide variety of properties are achieved: an exceptional hardness increase, exceptional resistance to microbial decay and insect attack, high resistance to chemical degradation, increase in MOR & MOE, and high dimensional stability. At lower modification levels many property enhancements also occur, however to slightly lower extent. Notable are resistance to microbial decay and insect attack, increase in MOR & MOE, and relatively high dimensional stability.
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider


Proposal for co-operative work. Testing the ability of accidentally introduced tropical insects to survive the cold season in Europe
1976 - IRG/WP 155
By hibernation-experiments in the past it was found that not only the low temperatures may become fatal by freezing. In some experiments we found indications that larvae died by starvation. For example Lyctus africanus-larvae did so in some years with a cold winter (mean above 0°C). If you like to take starvation as a reason for death into account it may be useful to withdraw pieces of infested wood after different times of hibernation or to add new material later.
S Cymorek


Termite and decay protection - A superficial barrier field test
1983 - IRG/WP 3257
Samples of Pinus radiata were given a superficial barrier treatment and installed in the ground at two sites for five years to observe termite and fungal attack. The three best treatments of the series were Denso petroleum tape, Koppers hot dip tar enamel, and Arquad 2C/75 alkyl ammonium compound. As new fungicides and insecticides become available they are being added to the test using the same system of treatment and exposure.
R S Johnstone, W D Gardner


Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369 1/m). Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in kickback from spruce treatment (~ 750 ppm) was approximately half that in Scots pine kickback (~ 1400 ppm), and were substantially less than TOC generated during treatment of radiata pine (~ 2000 ppm). Extent of CCA fixation (spruce: 93%, Scots pine: 97%) was similar to that obtained with radiata pine (97%). To reduce post-treatment drippage, caused particularly by the refractory nature of spruce, a modified Bethell process was found most appropriate for MPP treatment rather than modified Lowry schedules used with radiata pine. Use of hot CCA solutions did not improve penetration into spruce and some collapse (washboarding) of early wood was a feature of its treatment.
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin


Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning.
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri


New developments in wood preservation
1974 - IRG/WP 335
Most of the developments in wood preservation in recent years have been stimulated by changing circumstances, particularly the increasing interest in reducing hazards and environmental, pollution but also the serious difficulties that are now being encountered in obtaining economic supplies of established preservatives. There is perhaps a danger that new controls to reduce pollution dangers may be too severe.
B A Richardson


The internal-external diffusion process: Table salt treated poles
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-25
This new technique of preservation of wooden poles consists of keeping preservative in stock, in a reservoir drilled inside the pole, in its whole length. This permits the use of non toxic, common products such as table salt, grease, etc, in the preservation of utility poles, building columns, or the like. Some major obstacles to a good implementation of a good preservation with the classical processes become advantages with the new technique, notably the low permeability of some sorts of wood, and inaptitude to the fixing of a big number of chemicals aimed to provide a durable protection to wood submitted to weather.
L Nitunga


Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell process from base (1 m) to apex (3 m) of the tree in sapwood zone. Accordingly, conclusions on indication of the drying process of sapwood and heartwood, and vertical variation of longitudinal flow with effects of moisture were listed separately: (1) Comparison of Drying Characteristic of Sapwood and Heartwood: The two different thickness (300x30x30 mm3 and 300x20x20 mm3) of sapwood and heartwood of Sitka spruce was dried using the suggested drying schedule in kiln. The reduction of moisture was schematically diagrammed according to sapwood and heartwood stakes. The reduction of moisture followed the same downward trend that sapwood (S) loses more moisture than heartwood (H) although the small stakes of S and H lost moisture rapidly compared with the large ones. (2) Vertical Variation of Moisture Content and Longitudinal Permeability: The 90 kiln dried defect free sapwood stakes (150x25x25 mm3) of Sitka spruce was taken from base to apex of the trees at 1, 2 and 3 m above ground level. After having the determination of moisture content in each experimental stake, the treatment was carried out by the full-cell process with CCA preservative (Tanalith-C) using a model pressure treatment plant. Significant differences observed among the tree heights from 1 to 3 m showing that slightly increases of moisture content from base to apex and conversely decreases of longitudinal void volume filled by preservative fluid.
I Usta


Wood preservatives ecotoxicology on Gammarus pulex (L.) - toward an environmental monitoring method and a getting rid of pollution process
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-9
Wood preservatives can have a strong impact on freshwater invertebrates when used close to aquatic ecosystems. It has been reported in Jura that different arthropod taxa, specially crustaceans, have disappeared along several kilometers downstream from factories using insecticides and fungicides as wood preservatives. The crustacean Gammarus pulex (L.) is a relevant bioindicator to characterize the impact of wood preservatives on freshwater community. It presents a high sensitivity to wood preservatives but a relative tolerance to organic and nutrimental pollution. This abundant and ubiquitous crustacean has a key role in numerous aquatic ecosystems particularly in the decomposition of cellulose and as a prey for several fish species susceptible to be eaten by humans. In this study, we aim on the one hand to determine the adsorption capacity of different substrates of propiconazole, a fungicide widely used in the wood treatment, and on the other, to evaluate the toxicity of wood preservatives for G. pulex in controlled conditions. We hypothesize that the fungicide toxicity may be influenced by different types of substrate used in the test containers, i.e., coarse organic matter and gravel. These results should allow us to go, firstly toward the elaboration of sensors in order to detect product emissions in the aquatic environment, and secondly toward a depuration process in order to decrease the impact on the aquatic communities. These experiments should also allow us to develop a new biological monitoring method for the assessment of the impact of wood preservation on the aquatic ecosystems.
O Adam, F Degiorgi, G Crini, P-M Badot


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