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Wood colonizing fungi as a human pathogen
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1523
Today we recognize some 174 "pathogens" among the approximately 100000 species of fungi, which cause different diseases on man. 24 fungi which are well known as wood colonizing fungi have been identified as opportunistic human pathogen. Some of them have been found on the surface of the human body, causing superficial mycoses, or cutaneous infection, like dermatophytosis or dermatomycosis. Other cause systemic mycoses like aspergillosis, alternariosis, aureobasidiomycosis, fusariomycosis, basidiomysosis or mycotic infection of the eye or ear.
R Benko

Assessment of the environmental impacts in life cycle analysis
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-31
Evaluation of environmental impacts is of crucial importance nowadays but it is a complex problem. Different methodologies have been proposed for the last 20 years such as the "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) approach. Life Cycle Assessment is an evalution tool of the impacts on the environment of a system including the whole activities associated with, from the extraction of the raw materials to the elimination of the waste. LCA are usually considered in a generic way on the basis of potential global effects, as the involved processes occur anywhere in the world. This approach is handling emerging problems such as global warming, ozone depletion. However handling this global approach for human toxicity, aquatic ecotoxicity or terrestrial ecotoxicity is totally conventional and is not relevant of any factual effect. Considering human toxicity and ecotoxicity in a Life Cycle Assessment might require to perform it at a different scale (local or regional) as well as to record the inventory data separately for each site to enable impact assessment at a local scale.
I Blanc-Sommereux

Depictions on Wood: Acceptation and Internalization of Wood, which is an intercultural interaction tool, as “A Valuable Object” (Wood is Life)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40719
Wood is a valuable material for the production of a wide variety of products, and also is a precious material in relation to its ability to provide a more appropriate and acceptable service to users. As wood is uniquely suited for a variety of uses, it has been used extensively for many purposes since ancient times, and even today it is used for a wider variety of purposes than it used to be due to technological advances. In point of fact, although there are cultural differences that may influence behaviour vary widely between different societies (and even within the same society), wood has been used in a variety of purposes in exactly the same way or almost similarly throughout human history. On this basis, wood links between different cultures/societies with respect to its great beauty and its spectacular usability. Because wood is one of the most important tools for intercultural interactions associated with its ability to use to facilitate the cultural interchanges within and between societies, this article contains original depictions regarding to the acceptation and internalization of wood.
I Usta

Chemical defense of trees and wood natural durability: from protection to valorization
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10943
Natural durability of wood is defined as “the inherent resistance of wood against various wood-destroying organisms” (European standard EN 350-1). This property is due in particular to heartwood extractives. However, the wood natural durability is included in a wider defense system, and other organs such as bark and roots also host protective compounds. Studying the mechanisms on which global chemical defense relies can give insights into the tree functioning, but also inspire new solutions for scientific and technical innovation. Firstly, we will highlight the link between the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tree chemical defense and the optimized production of economically valuable products such as essential oils. We will then present previous works performed by our team aiming at understanding the chemical resistance mechanisms of durable woods against fungi, to eventually isolate and identify antifungal compounds that could be used for the treatment of human fungal diseases, in the context of a bio-inspired approach. Lastly, we will show that the use of wood residues obtained from naturally durable trees transformed by the timber industry can be a sustainable strategy to develop innovative products for human well-being or health.
E Houel, D Stien, N Amusant

From wood protection to health protection: larvicidal potential of formulations containing Sextonia rubra wood residues extract against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
2020 - IRG/WP 20-10968
French Guiana is a French overseas territory almost entirely covered by Amazonian rainforest and characterized by its incredible biodiversity. Several woody species harboured by this tropical forest are exploited sustainably for timber industry. They are commercialized notably for carpentry and outdoor applications because of their remarkable natural durability. Among them, stand Dicorynia guianensis Amshoff (Angélique), Qualea rosea Aubl. (Gonfolo rose), Ruizterania albiflora (Warm.) Marc.-Berti (Gonfolo gris) and Sextonia rubra Mez. Van der Werff (Grignon franc), representing around 80% of the global exploitation volume. This industry however generates large volumes of wastes, in particular because more than 50% of the ligneous material are lost between cutting down and sawing. Moreover, the strong demographic growth (around 2.5% per year) in French Guiana will lead to a notable increase of the need for timber, in construction as well as for energy, and the amount of induced wood wastes will increase concurrently. Sawdust residues are used currently only for biomass energy factories, but owing to the presence of molecules displaying interesting biological properties, wood residues and sawdust definitively deserve more attention. In recent years, a rising interest in value-added forest products, and in particular wood extractives, has indeed been observed, with the aim of reducing the lost generated by the forest industry due to undervalorized biomass components (Royer et al. 2013a, Khan et al. 2014, Borges et al. 2019). It is therefore relevant to integrate a new step in forest resources valorisation, putting the bio-refinery concept into practice (Royer et al. 2013b).
E Cervil, N Amusant, E Wozniak, I Dusfour, J-B Duchemin, D Azam, M Coke, E Houël