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Possible durability transfer from durable to non durable wood species. The study case of teak wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10392
Teakwood is well known for its excellent natural durability, mostly due to its high proportion of extracts. Amongst these extracts, quinones, and more precisely some naphtoquinones (such as lapachol) and anthraquinones (such as tectoquinone) appear to play a crucial role in the resistance to wood decay organisms. At a laboratory scale, sawdust from malaysian teak heartwood has been extracted under...
M-F Thévenon, C Roussel, J-P Haluk


Soil blocks versus field test for evaluating and standardizing wood preservatives: A commercial view
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20024
On the basis of technical considerations, experience, costs and applicability, the author concludes that the soil block test and other laboratory tests have little meaning in a wood preservative standardization process and almost no merit in the commercialization of a wood preservative system. Field tests at sites known to be aggressive to preservative treated wood are strongly recommended....
W S McNamara


A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge ...
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


Natural durability of some commercial timbers of Sarawak, Malaysia in tropical marine environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10561
The abundant supply of timber resources in Sarawak makes timber an ideal choice to be used for marine construction. The natural durability of the main commercial timber species of Sarawak in ground contact is well established but the same is not available for marine environment. This study was conducted to assess the natural durability of 28 commercial timber species in tropical marine environmen...
K Jenang, Wang Choon Ling


Reworded resolution
1976 - IRG/WP 145
New evidence has demonstrated that certain timber species are unexpectedly difficult to protect against biological degradation by the use of known preservation systems. Several of these timber species are expected to become of wide commercial use in the future. The issues raised are of such fundamental importance and require so intensive basic research that official bodies should be encouraged to ...
B Henningsson


The preventive actions of three commercial wood preservatives against Dinoderus minutus
1984 - IRG/WP 1233
Dinoderus minutus is one of the most common pest insects for the bamboos. For preventing the damages of this insect, the preventive treatment of bamboos with preservatives is necessary. But because of the environmental reasons, only limited insecticides are available in Japan. The author determined the preventive effects of three commercial products against Dinoderus minutus by the medium of the B...
K Suzuki


Commercial potential of the four-cycle method for the impregnation of green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia
1975 - IRG/WP 347
This paper was presented to the Conference on Wood Protection held in Sarajevo (Yugoslavia) in 1973. The paper was based partially on the report prepared by J. Struhar and G. F. Franciosi, who were appointed in 1972 as FAO consultants to demonstrate the new impregnation process for green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia. The so-called 4-cycle method was developed at the State Forest Research Institute...
N Vidovic


Influence of sampling on the composition of test solutions
1985 - IRG/WP 2235
For four commercial products of CCB-salts the influence of the kind of sampling on the composition of test solutions has been tested. For each product several 5 g samples have been taken at random, after careful mixing the content of each bottle, and after grinding the whole content. With each sample a 5% test solution was made and analyzed on the content of chromium, copper and boron. Altogether ...
H Willeitner, K Brandt


Venezuelan net of test fields for the study of the effectiveness of treatments of non commercial timbers from natural tropical forests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20318
A net of 13 tests fields were established in Venezuela for the study of the effectiveness of the CCA and CCB treatment in secondary or non commercial woods from natural forests, two woods from fast growth plantations wee included for promote them as treated timber mainly for fence posts uses. Partial results after two years are presented and discussed the preliminary results obtained both in field...
O Encinas, N Mora


Tolerance of Wood Decay Fungi to Commercial Copper Based Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30291
Due to the use of copper based preservatives like CCB or CCA for more than a century, copper tolerant fungi have appeared in some European countries in recent times. It is therefore important to find out whether this phenomenon is specific for only classical copper ingredients, or generally for all copper based formulation. Thus, we tested the tolerance of three commercial copper based pres...
F Pohleven, M Humar, S A Amartey, J Benedik


Laboratory evaluation of six commercial termiticides against subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30034
Small specimens of Heavea brasiliensis (10 x 10 x 20 mm³) were exposed to the laboratory colony of Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann for 4 months after dip- or brush-treatment with six commercially available emulsifiable termiticides (alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and chlordane). Synthetic pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos were effective as well as 1% treatment of ch...
Y Sornnuwat, C Vongkaluang, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi


Preservative treatment of wood by diffusion processes - Simulation of commercial treatment processes
1988 - IRG/WP 3498
Spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pendula) were preservative treated by diffusion with mixtures of copper sulphate and arsenic pentoxide. The preservative was fixed after a suitable diffusion storage period by soaking in ammonia solution. A high standard of treatment could be achieved in spruce sapwood. This was attributed to its low wood density, and high wood ...
P Vinden


A comment on problem orientated research for the preservation industry
1984 - IRG/WP 3303
Wood preservation is a technological discipline, based upon a number of fundamental sciences, including biology and chemistry. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG) is presently structured to support the preservation industry, since IRG working groups attempt to strike a balance between fundamental aspects and technological needs. Over the years there has been an increasing r...
H Greaves


Variable tolerance of Ophiostoma spp. and Diplodia pinea to commercial antisapstain products
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10266
A recent survey of the occurrence of sapstain fungi in New Zealand, conducted at The University of Waikato, provided the opportunity to examine fungicidal tolerance amongst new isolates. It also enabled a comparison of tolerance amongst new isolates with those used in routine antisapstain screening trials at Forest Research. A rapid antisapstain laboratory disc trial was used to determine the ext...
D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Kreber, J G Van der Waals, R N Wakeling, R L Farrell, T Harrington


Preliminary tests on the effect of naturally occurring chemicals on termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1181
Twenty-eight naturally occurring chemicals consisting of monoterpenes, quinones and wood·extractives were tested against seven species of termite. Small pieces of filter pad and agathis wood chips measuring 5 mm by 10 mm were treated with the chemicals and exposed to the termites in polystyrene weighing bottles. Results of the tests revealed that the chemicals inhibited the feeding behaviour of t...
Nana Supriana


Commercial antisapstain chemicals in New Zealand
1980 - IRG/WP 3142
Almost all sawn timber of exotic softwoods (principally Pinus radiata) and a large proportion of indigenous sawn timber receives an antisapstain chemical treatment to prevent fungal degrade during subsequent seasoning, storage, or transportation (if exported). Antisapstain chemicals are also widely used to protect freshly peeled round produce during drying. A further, specialised, use is as the fu...
J A Butcher


Resistance of two commercial cement-bonded rubberwood particle composites to decay and termites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10338
Two types of cement-bonded rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) particle composites (tradenames: Cemboard and Primaflex in Malaysia), were evaluated for termite resistance (prevalent termite: Coptotermes curvignathus) in the field, and decay resistance (test white rot fungi: Schizophyllum commune and Pycnoporus sanguineus; test brown rot fungus: Gloeophyllum trabeum; test soft rot fungi: Phialophora fa...
A A H Wong


An aquaria test of the natural resistance against marine borers of some commercial timbers available in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10145
The natural resistance of the heartwood of 22 different timbers grown or commercially available in Australia was examined. Radiata pine sapwood both untreated, and treated with 5.4 kg/m³ CCA salt, was included for comparison. Small timber blocks were exposed for one year in tanks containing either Limnoria tripunctata or Lyrodus pedicellatus. Four softwood species tested were heavily attacked and...
L J Cookson


Chemical Analysis of Southern Pine Pole Stubs Thirteen Months Following Treatment with Three Methylisothiocyanate Based Commercial Fumigants
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30294
Agricultural fumigants have been commercially used in the United States for over 20 years to control internal decay in utility poles and other wooden structures. Of the four fumigants which are currently used in the remedial treatment of utility poles, three are based on methylisothiocyanate (MITC) as being the principal fungitoxic component. Two of these MITC based fumigants, liquid metham sodi...
R J Ziobro, T C Anderson, D J Herdman, J Guzzetta, T Pope


Occupational exposure risk assessment at a commercial treatment plant using copper azole preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-15
Experience with traditional water-based preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) applied in closed system vacuum pressure impregnation plants has shown that operator atmospheric exposure is low during normal operation. TANALITH E is a commercially available copper azole wood preservative introduced as a chrome and arsenic-free alternative to CCA based on the actives copper, tebuconaz...
A S Hughes, M Connell


Development of a commercial-scale CCA chemical sludge recycling system
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-19
The occurrence of fixation reactions in Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA) treatment solutions is increased where the treatment of unseasoned and partially seasoned timbers in hot climates occurs. The by-products of the fixation reactions are predominantly insoluble chromium arsenate compounds, commonly referred to as CCA sludge. Historically, this material has been disposed of into toxic waste landfi...
A J B Butler


Stability of bifenthrin in a commercial phenol-formaldehyde plywood glue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30311
Liquid phenol formaldehyde (PF) glue mixes used for plywood manufacture are strongly alkaline. At this pH insecticidal additives may not be stable for long periods. In order to establish practical working life of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, in liquid PF glues the concentration of bifenthrin in the glue mix was measured under laboratory conditions over a 24 hour period. Glu...
M J Kennedy, P A Collins, R D Vella


Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chemicals used for wood durability improvement by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20349
The Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be a suitable technique to assess chemicals used for wood durability improvement in the forest products industry. NIRS methodology can be used to obtain results more quickly, less costly and without damaging the wood. In this study, wood samples selected from heartwood and sapwood of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) were prepared to assess the artificial d...
S Zahri, F Charrier, H Baillères, B Charrier


Laboratory evaluation comparing three commercial termite baits based on chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSIs) against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10625
This laboratory bioassay report describes laboratory evaluation undertaken to compare the efficacy, and palatability of Requiem®, Nemesis® and Sentricon® AG as candidate bait toxicants against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt. The laboratory bioassay results confirmed palatability and efficacy differences between the three comm...
B Ahmed


Growth and succession of mould on commercial paint systems in two field sites
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30421
Discolouring fungi reduce the service life of coated wooden claddings in façades and increase the total cost of ownership due to shorter maintenance intervals. It is of major importance to find paint systems for wood which are durable and have a high resistance to mould growth. A total of 15 paint systems from 9 different manufacturers were exposed on two field sites, Sørkedalen and Birkenes, ...
L Ross Gobakken, K M Jenssen


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