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How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market a...
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


Biodeterioration and preservation of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10084
Plantation-grown rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) in the tropics is fast emerging as a significant provider of quality hardwood for a variety of non-structural products, as the aesthetics of the timber is its creamed colour resembling perhaps the priced but depleting Ramin wood or even American beechwood. However rubberwood logs and sawn materials are highly sensitive to sapstain, fungal decay an...
L T Hong, A H H Wong


Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large ...
A A H Wong, A P Singh


Fungi associated with groundline soft rot decay in copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood utility poles of Malaysian hardwoods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1567
Copper-chrome-arsenic treated heartwood from Malaysian hardwood utility poles in service for 8-23 y at two localities in the wet tropical Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed for soft rot in the ground-contact region. Soft rot decay was detected in all the poles. Isolation studies indicated the ability of a variety of microfungi and basidiomycetes to colonize treated heartwood. Most isolates exhibited...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, S C Watkinson


The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They ...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


Variation in infection rates of blue-stain, mould and white rot tropical fungi on mixed light Malaysian woods
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10334
The modified 3-week FRIM laboratory method for screening of anti-sapstain formulations against three representative tropical fungi causing blue-stain (Botryodiplodia theobromae), mould (Paecilomyces variotii) and white rot (Schizophyllum commune) infection of sapwood species was used to examine the relative resistance of the sapwood of eight mixed light Malaysian woods, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestri...
A H H Wong, S Ahmad


Soft rot test of copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood of three Malaysian timbers
1991 - IRG/WP 2381
Standardized heartwood blocks of kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), keruing (Dipterocarpus sp.) and tualang (Koompassia excelsa) were impregnated with 0 to 6.3% (w/v) CCA and challenged to decay by a mixed inocula of Chaetomium globosum, Glenospora graphii, Humicola grisea, Petriella setifera and Trichurus spiralis in a containerized vermiculite-burial decay system according to draft CEN/TC 38 WG 4....
A H H Wong, R-D Peek


Natural Durability of Tropical Species – Variations and Prospects
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10568
The tropical timber resources of the world play an unequivocal role in economic development of both the tropical timber producing and importing regions. This paper describes natural durability as an important and preferred wood quality of tropical species of the world with emphasis on Malaysian hardwoods, the link between various aspects of tropical hardwood durability, hardwood utilization and bi...
A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, Wang Choon Ling


Soft rot decay of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10119
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri), an East Malaysian timber species, is naturally durable due to its certain unique anatomical features and high content of extractives. The timber can tolerate years of exposure to hazardous conditions in ground contact and other situations without any significant loss in its strength. A few Belian transmission poles sampled from one locality in Saraw...
A H H Wong, A P Singh


Termite resistance of Malaysian and exotic woods with plantation potential: Laboratory evaluation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10280
The resistance of selected Malaysian woods to attack by the representative aggressive subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was evaluated in four-week, no-choice laboratory tests. This is part of an ongoing effort between the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the University of Hawaii to document the termite resistance of Malaysian timber species of po...
J K Grace, A A H Wong, C H M Tome


Association of contents of nitrogen and sugars in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) clones with susceptibility to sapstain by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus niger
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10307
The purpose of this study was to determine if nitrogen and sugar contents in rubberwood from three selected varieties (clones) rubber trees would affect the rate of colonisation by Botryodiplodia theobromae (a tropical sapstain fungus), Aureobasidium pullulans (a temperate sapstain fungus) and Aspergillus niger (a common mould fungus). Sapstain growth was rated daily until at least 50% mycelial co...
A J Ashari, J W Palfreyman, A H H Wong


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of CCA treated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3700
Ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir wood sections were treated with CCA preservative. To elucidate the mechanism of fixation of the CCA, the wood surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). CCA treatment increased C1 (carbon bonded to carbon and/or hydrogen) and decreased C2 (carbon bonded to one oxygen) in XPS C1s spectra, both in unextracted and pre-extracted sections. This sugges...
J N R Ruddick, K Yamamoto, P C Wong, K A R Mitchell


Incomplete fixation of chromium in the pre-treated wood with a solution of copper and arsenic compounds
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50052
Ponderosa pine wood thin sections were treated with a combination of chromium, copper, and arsenic chemicals. The wood sections was analyzed by electron spin resonance spectrometry (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) to elucidate the mechanism of fixation of the chromated-copper preservatives. The wood subjected to the two-step treatment with copper and arsenic followed by chromium ex...
J N R Ruddick, K Yamamoto, F G Herring, P C Wong, K A R Mitchell


Soft Rot Decay of Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Heartwood in Ground Contact in Relation to Extractive Microdistribution
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10501
The heartwood of cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii, fam. Dipterocarpaceae) is naturally durable. A square-sawn utility pole specimen of cengal heartwood, after 30 years in ground contact, showed 10-15 mm surface decay all around the ground line position, accompanied with isolated surface termite attack at the decayed region. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the decayed regions prov...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang Ho Lee


Decay resistance of densified ammonia-plasticized stems of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)
1991 - IRG/WP 3673
When wafers of oil palm stems (Elaeis guineensis) were plasticized with 28% aqueous ammonia and immediately compressed mechanically, the treated material, gained 73% in basic density (average basic density, 0.695 g/cm³), and was highly resistant to decay by wood rot basidiomycetes. Compared with the control specimens (density, 0.403 g/cm³), resistance to decay of the densified specimens by Corio...
A H H Wong, M P Koh


Laboratory evaluation of termite resistance of five lesser-known Malaysian hardwoods used for roof and ceiling construction
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10398
The general laboratory procedure of AWPA E1-97 was used to evaluate the termite resistance of 5 lesser- known species (LKT) of Malaysian hardwoods: Kekatong (Cynometra sp.), Kelat (Eugenia spp.), Mempening (Lithocarpus spp.), Perah (Elateriospermum tapos) and Pauh Kijang (Irvingia malayana) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus over 28 days. Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and ...
A A H Wong, Kee Suan Cheok, J K Grace


Preliminary PIXE micro-analysis of copper-chrome-arsenic preservative treated Malaysian hardwoods
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20169
The novel nuclear microscopy, essentially the Particle-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) system, was applied for examining the macro-distribution and micro-analysis of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative in Malaysian hardwoods Koompassia malaccensis, K. excelsa, Alstonia spp. and Dipterocarpus spp., and one temperate pinewood Pinus sylvestris, where the preservative retention differed between the...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, G W Grime, F Watt


Aboveground Microbial Decay Test of Biocide Treated and Untreated Wood Exposed to Danish and Humid Tropical Climates
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20306
A co-operative study was initiated to compare the aboveground field decay test of untreated and preservative-treated timbers under Nordic (Danish) and a representative humid tropical (Malaysian) environment according to CEN standard method. Matched specimens of untreated and both preservative-impregnated and surface-treated wood were simultaneously exposed at The Danish Technological Institute (DT...
A H H Wong, N Morsing, K H Henriksen, S Ujang


Termite resistance of Malaysian and exotic woods with plantation potential: Field evaluation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10289
An in-ground resistance of selected Malaysian and exotic timbers to attack by a representative aggressive subterranean Coptotermes termite was evaluated as part of an on-going collaborative research between the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and the University of Hawaii on termite control of building timbers under humid tropical conditions. A test site at FRIM, highly susceptible to the sub...
A H H Wong, J K Grace, L H Kirton


Performance of Two Imidacloprid-Treated Malaysian Hardwoods in an Accelerated Aboveground Termite Test
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30389
The performance of the chloronicotinyl insecticide imidacloprid as a wood protecting termiticide, under a simulated Malaysian biological hazard class H2 (exposure aboveground indoors against termites and wood borers), was evaluated by a novel termite field test protocol. Replicate end-grain sealed air dried test blocks (20 x 20 x 20 mm) of two Malaysian hardwoods, Kembang Semangkok (Scaphium spp.)...
A H H Wong


Comparison of the FRIM and forest research laboratory methods for screening of anti-sapstain formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20170
Two laboratory methods for screening of anti-sapstain formulations were compared. The method adopted by the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) involved 3 weeks assessment of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) blocks, dipped in the candidate formulation and inoculated with mycelial/spore suspension of sapstain (Botryodiplodia theobromae) or decay (Schizophyllum commune) fungi, and incubated on ...
A H H Wong, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, M E Hedley, R N Wakeling


Microbial decay in an extremely durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) - an overview
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10216
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) is highly regarded among the naturally durable Malaysian hardwoods, and is therefore a choice timber for soilcontact use in the humid tropics such as untreated telecommunication poles, fence posts and railway sleepers. The high microbial resistance of the wood is evidenced by the mere superficial degradation observed in some pole samples after 20 yea...
A H H Wong, A P Singh


The high decay resistance in the sapwood of the naturally durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10410
It has long been assumed that the observed natural durability of the heartwood in certain timbers is perhaps associated with a relatively lower decay susceptibility also of the sapwood of these species. While the heartwood of Belian is reputedly highly decay resistant among the tropical hardwoods of Southeast Asia, laboratory decay tests reported in this paper have also confirmed the high decay re...
A A H Wong, A P Singh


Laboratory Evaluation of the Formosan Subterranean Termite Resistance of Borate-treated Rubberwood Chipboard
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30359
Both no-choice and two-choice 4-week AWPA laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the resistance of borate-treated rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) chipboard prepared from a commercial mill run, against the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus. Boric acid (technical granular) was incorporated into the boards during manufacture to achieve loadings of 1.0% or 1.1% boric acid equiv...
A H H Wong, J K Grace


Performance of Tuff Brite C™ and other formulations against blue-stain, mold and brown-stain in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the humid tropics of Peninsular Malaysia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30163
The relative anti-sapstain and anti-mold efficacies, including brown-stain development in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Malaysian tropics, between selected water-based product concentrations of formulations Tuff Brite CTM without/with added Borax (at 1.5/0, 1/1.5, 1.5/1.5 and 2%/1.5%), PQ8TM without/with added Borax (at 2.5/0, 1.5/1.5, 2/1.5 and 2.5%/1.5%) and NeXgenTM/NeX-Br...
A H H Wong, T L Woods


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