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Screening of modified linseed oils on their applicability in wood protection
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30346
In this study modified linseed oils, rape oil and three waxes were screened on their efficacy as wood protecting agents. By testing all products when impregnated with high retentions in Scots Pine sapwood on water repellence qualities, additionally an accelerated weathering test, drying quality, accelerated brown rot and blue stain test, an indication is formed of the capability of these products ...
A Treu, J Lückers, H Militz


Microwave curing of furfuryl alcohol modified wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40371
Furfurylated wood has shown to have promising properties for a wood modification agent during the last years. In this paper, an alternative curing method for furfuryl alcohol modified pine sapwood by means of microwave radiation was investigated. Different process parameters of microwave treatment such as output power, exposure time to microwave radiation, initial wood moisture content and evapor...
A Treu, E Larnøy, H Militz


Spruce and pine heartwood treatment by means of microwave radiation
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40411
An easier penetrability and a more even uptake of wood protection agents is aimed for the two most common wood species in Europe, namely Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine heartwood (Pinus sylvestris), particularly when there is a great difference in absorption behavior of sapwood and heartwood. Microwave conditioning can improve permeability, reduce density and heat conductivity and chang...
A Treu, H Rieche, H Militz


Spruce and pine heartwood treatment by means of microwave radiation
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40411
An easier penetrability and a more even uptake of wood protection agents is aimed for the two most common wood species in Europe, namely Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine heartwood (Pinus sylvestris), particularly when there is a great difference in absorption behavior of sapwood and heartwood. Microwave conditioning can improve permeability, reduce density and heat conductivity and chang...
A Treu, H Rieche, H Militz


Material properties of furfurylated wood for window production
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40480
Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol is an extensively investigated process and already produced commercially. Furfurylated wood is in the focus of a European project on its use for the production of high performance windows. Different wood species were treated with furfuryl alcohol and tested on water uptake, dimensional changes, leaching in water, resistance to fungal degradation, and ecotoxi...
A Treu, A Pilgård, S Puttmann, A Krause


Wood protection by means of electro osmotic pulsing technology (PLEOT)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40505
Wood protection is mainly based on chemical protection of wood. The disposal of wood preservative treated material causes restrictions in its later use or recirculation into the eco-cycle. A new protective system, electro-osmotic pulsing technology on wood, called PLEOT, is tested in a fungi test and in soil contact. Mass loss and moisture content of Scots pine sapwood samples was calculated after...
A Treu, E Larnøy


Slice - Cut and Analyze Laser Microdissection (LMD): A method to produce sample material from modified wood for chemical quality analysis
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20478
Wood modification with its various systems is an established way to enhance a wood products’ service life in outdoor applications. Per definition, selected material properties are enhanced by means of modification without producing toxic substances or residues during service life and combustion afterwards. The systems of impregnation modification include a physical and often chemical alteration ...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, A Treu, M Fongen


Challenges and new developments in testing electro osmotic pulsing technology (PLEOT) by means of conventional laboratory methods
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40555
A new wood protection system, electro-osmotic pulsing technology, called PLEOT, is tested in lab trials using different test setup. The technology is tested on Scots pine sapwood and beech wood samples exposed to brown- and white rot fungi. Mass loss and moisture content is calculated after testing and a chitin analysis are performed on the sample powder. Two different electrodes are used in ord...
A Treu, E Larnøy


Influence of a pulsed electric field on the growth of surface fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10795
The colonization of mold and staining fungi are not only an aesthetical problem. Blue stain fungi are able to penetrate paint films. Maintenance of coatings on wood are time consuming and costly. A new approach uses a pulsed electric field (PLEOT) in order to protect wood against surface fungi. This technology is evaluated in non-sterile laboratory conditions on different coated and uncoated Scots...
M Starck, A Treu


Utilization of TG-DSC to study thermal degradation of beech and silver fir
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40628
Thermal treatment of wood is, besides other wood modification system, used to improve the decay resistance and dimensional stability. However, the chemical changes that are caused by treatment process are still difficult to quantify, characterize and control. Previous studies have shown that thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS is an attractive tool to characterize and quantify products formed during...
K Candelier, A Treu, J Dibdiakova, E Larnøy, A Petrissans, S Dumarçay, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin


A screening of factors that might influence the result of laboratory decay tests
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20548
Laboratory fungal decay tests provide important tools for performance testing of wood materials. But they are also hampered with some uncertainties regarding reproducibility. In addition to variation between fungal species and strains the test conditions are also believed to have some influence. The aim of this study was to screen the effect of a selection of test parameters that might influence t...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, A Treu, S Kolstad


A guideline for sorting easy to impregnate Scots pine sapwood based on three treatability studies from Northern Europe
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40669
Scots pine sapwood is generally considered an easy to impregnate wood species, though it reportedly faces challenges towards a homogeneous impregnation and large variations in treatability are reported for the material. This study comprises the results of three treatability tests that were performed on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. The material impregnated was originated from a large ...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, A Treu


Impact of early lignification of ray parenchyma cells on the treatability of Scots pine sapwood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40706
The wood anatomy of Scots pine sapwood can influence its treatability. A microscopic analysis on the wood material from four different stands in Northern Europe was performed using tangential sections from the outer part of Scots pine sapwood. Single correlations of the ray composition and lignification state of the ray parenchyma showed the influence of these factors on radial penetration depth a...
K Zimmer, A Treu


Creosote leaching from timber bridges in Norway – a practical classification approach
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40744
Creosote is widely used as a wood preservative for highway timber bridges in Norway. However, excessive creosote leaching at various highway timber bridge sites leads to a bad reputation for the use of creosote treated timber constructions and the use of wood in general. Macro- and micro anatomical factors such as amount of heartwood, annual ring width, annual ring orientation, ray- height and com...
A Treu, K Zimmer


The potential and the challenges of acetylated wood in timber bridges - experiences from an ongoing project
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40792
Acetylated wood is known to be a durable and dimensional stable alternative for high performance materials, and has high potential for exterior timber structures. Research has shown that acetylated wood can be effectively bonded by various adhesive types. However, one of the most common used adhesives for timber constructions, Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF), shows a high degree of delamination o...
A Treu, R Bredesen, F Bongers


Hibernation or spring awakening? – The research on wood durability and protection in marine environment
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10929
Wooden structures in marine applications are exposed to severe degradation conditions caused by mechanical loads and wood degrading organisms. The present paper presents the use of wood in marine environments in Europe from a wood protection perspective and gives an overview over relevant research topics. It compiles the most relevant literature with an emphasis on new wood protection methods and ...
A Treu, K Zimmer, C Brischke, E Larnøy, L R Gobakken, F Aloui, S M Cragg, P-O Flæte, M Humar, M Westin


Water interactions in wood polyesterified with sorbitol and citric acid
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40888
Polyesterifcation of wood with sorbitol and citric acid seems to be a promising chemical wood modification technique that is both low-cost and produced from bio-based chemicals. An interesting aspect of the modification is the interaction of water with the polyesterified wood since the relationship with moisture appears to be unique compared to other wood modification systems. This communication p...
G Beck, A Treu, E Larnøy


A summary of decay performance with citric acid and sorbitol modification
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40898
Application of wood-based products as construction materials is one piece of the big puzzle to mitigate climate change. Wood is susceptible to biological deterioration. Environmentally motivated legislation is making the use of biocides less attractive from a commercial perspective. Ideally, a wood modification technology should be of low cost, water based and make use of thermal curing. This rese...
G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, G Beck, J Biørnstad, L R Gobakken, C A S Hill, A Treu


Macro biological degradation of wood treated with sorbitol and citric acid – first results from marine environment and termite exposure
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40901
Most European wood species are rapidly and severely degraded in termite-infested areas and the marine environment. There is a need for new solutions, especially in the marine environment, since we lack wood preservatives approved for marine applications in Europe. Several wood modification systems show high resistance against both marine borers and subterranean termites. However, the existing comm...
A Treu, L Nunes, E Larnøy


CIOL®-protection of wood – an update
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40932
Most commercial wood species from the northern European region are of low natural durability. Products from these wood species for outside applications need therefore protection to increase their service life. This protection should be free of biocides, come from renewable resource, have great performance and hold a low consumer price. A mixture of water, sorbitol and citric acid has the potential...
A Treu, E Larnøy, J Biørnstad