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Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund


Studies on accelerated ageing procedures with TBTO-treated wood
1985 - IRG/WP 2244
The efficacy of various procedures for accelerated ageing of organotin based wood preservatives in treated wood has been investigated. It was found that leaching of the treated wood samples in water according to the European Standard EN 84 was not satisfactory for organotin based preservatives and is probably also unsuitable even for other types of organic solvent preservatives. Keeping tributyltin oxide (TBTO) treated samples in a heating cabinet at 70°C for five weeks, however, had a considerable effect on the breakdown of TBTO and the subsequent decay test. Therefore, an ageing procedure involving a heating period should be considered for all organic solvent wood preservatives. The investigation also confirmed that elevated temperatures accelerate the degradation of TBTO and that there is a strong correlation between the percentage of TBTO in the wood and its resistance against decay.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, W Hintze


A comparison of the effectiveness of a vacuum oven and a wind tunnel in the accelerated ageing of treated wood by evaporation
1989 - IRG/WP 2334
R J Orsler, G E Holland


Accelerated ageing of preservatives in treated wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3476
New preservatives are tested in the laboratory and often in field tests before they are used commercially. Some preservatives, however, tested in the laboratory do not show the expected stability when used in service. The differences between laboratory tests and practical use can never be completely eliminated but must be minimized as far as possible by relevant testing methods. Studies of the effect of different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and the wood preserving capacity of six different fungicides or combinations thereof have been carried out. Chemicals tested were tributyltinoxide (TBTO), tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN), furmecyclox, benzalkoniumchloride (AAC) + guazatin and pentachlorophenol. The ageing procedures included exposure of test specimens in a wind tunnel (according to EN 73), in an oven at 40°C, 60°C and 70°C, leaching (according to EN 84) and combinations of these procedures. The influence of the different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and toxic effect of different fungicides was obvious and, for some procedures and chemicals, comparable with experiences from practice.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, B Jensen, C-E Sundman


The potential for accelerated ageing to determine the persistence of active ingredients in timber
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20323
Fast screening methods for evaluating the persistence of active ingredients in timber are proposed. This is an outline proposal which is intended to provoke discussion and further development of the methods. Reliable and accurate analytical methods are key to these tests.
L D A Saunders, M R Powell


Laboratory tests on artificial weathering of Quercus rubra crossties
1986 - IRG/WP 2252
Clear red oak (Quercus rubra) blocks were used to evaluate various types of accelerated aging tests including boil, steaming, and cyclic weathering. It was found that the repeated vacuum and pressure treatment of wood in water, steaming, oven-dry, and freezing appeared to be most effective in reducing the MOE in compression and hardness modules of wood specimens. Red oak crossties which were pressure treated with creosote - coal tar preservative were tested using the cyclic aging technique. This method will be used to establish correlation between short-term accelerated aging test results and long-term in service performance of wood crossties.
P Chow, A J Reinschmidt, E J Barenberg, S L Lewis


Cyclic delamination analysis of preservative-treated wood/FRP interfaces
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40244
Wood preservative chemicals can interfere with adhesive properties when bonding wood laminates or wood/FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) laminate composites. In this work we studied the effects of various wood preservative treatments, and pre- and post-treatment on wood/wood and wood/FRP bond durability using a severe cyclic delamination test (ASTM D-2559). Pre-treatment of individual laminates with oil-borne (copper naphthenate, creosote and pentachlorophenol) and water borne (CCA and CDDA) preservatives increased the delamination between the wood and FRP, although wood/wood bonds were generally acceptable. Post-treatments had limited effect on wood/wood delamination. The use of post-treatments on wood/FRP bonded samples, although less significant than with pre-treatments, also increased delamination of wood/FRP glue lines.
C Tascioglu, B Goodell, R Lopez-Anido


Experiments in accelerated ageing
1984 - IRG/WP 2223
Experiments using a vacuum oven to accelerate the evaporative loss of g-HCH from treated wood blocks have indicated that the method described in this paper has the potential to reproduce in a relatively short time the distributions and loadings of the insecticide that are found during natural ageing. By contrast, the wind tunnel removed the volatile material in a way not found in natural ageing and characterised principally by the rapid removal of material close to or on the wood surface. Theoretical considerations reinforced these practical observations indicating that the vacuum oven could provide a much quicker means of attaining the condition that is likely to exist in aged timber.
R J Orsler, M W S Stone


Stability, performance and distribution of propiconazole (R 49362) in acceleratedly aged wood
1991 - IRG/WP 3647
The permanency of propiconazole (R 49362 - WOCOSENÔ technical - Janssen Pharmaceutica) in wood was examined in an 18 month storage test, an evaporative ageing study (EN 73), a volatilization stress experiment, and water-leaching studies (EN 84). The biological efficacy against two brown rot fungi: Coniophora puteana BAM Ebw. 15 and Gloeophyllum trabeum BAM Ebw. 109 was assessed according to the European Standard EN 113 with and without acceleratedly aged blocks of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.). Propiconazole proved to be leach-resistant from treated wood. Evaporative ageing had very little effect on its biological performance. Chemical analyses of various Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) samples used for EN 113 testing, showed that the concentration gradient in the outermost shell of the wood specimens was not altered by accelerated ageing stresses and that the active ingredient is evenly distributed in the wood substrate. These results indicate that propiconazole is suited for further development as a fungicide for pressure-treated timber.
A R Valcke, M Stevens


Accelerated weathering test for the evaluation of wood preservative efficacy
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20262
Wood samples treated with ammonium copper quat (ACQ-1900 and ACQ-2200), Chromated copper arsenate (CCA), Tanalith E 3491 and Wolmanit CX-8 have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 hours UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 minutes. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by FTIR Spectroscopy and color measurements on the samples with 0, 200, 400 and 600 hours of total weathering. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes created by weathering on impregnated wood with several different wood preservatives. This was performed study, accelerated weathering using UV irradiation and water spray was used to simulate natural weathering. FTIR and color measurement was used to investigate the changes after several intervals (0- 200 h- 400 h- 600 h) in artificial weathering of treated and untreated wood.
A Temiz, M Eikenes, Ü C Yildiz, F G Evans, B Jacobsen


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparative performance of new wood preservative formulations in an environment that accurately reflects field conditions.
P Turner, D Conradie


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves


Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry


Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1980 - IRG/WP 279
G Castan


Fungicidal combination products
1987 - IRG/WP 3426
Due to the increased pressure on some of the established fungicides used in wood preservation, possible alternative products become more interesting. The requirements for new chemicals are mainly lower toxicity and greater environmental acceptability. However the efficacy to target organisms should be as good as that of the currently used ones, preferably better. A possibility for progress in this direction could be fungicidal combination products showing broader spectrum of efficacy and synergistic effects. Mixtures of tributyltin compounds with Furmecyclox and K-HDO respectively are tested for this purpose. Toxic values with and without artificial ageing (wind-tunnel exposure and leaching) were determined. Investigations have been made with coating-formulations in order to test penetration, evaporation and the influence of UV-radiation. Aqueous formulations were tested for special purposes such as the treatment of freshly cut timber and the protection of brickwork. The results obtained are very promising, especially regarding long term durability. Further investigations mainly with the aqueous formulations including other test fungi and field trials are necessary to confirm the suggested application as wood preservatives.
H A B Landsiedel


Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
N Vidovic


Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning, evacuation and alternating pressure method treatment. Timber Preservation Authority penetration and retention requirements can be met in approximately 4-5 h. The optimum schedule, however, included a 12 hour holding period between steaming and preservative treatment. A method of applying boron preservatives as a vapour is described, Trimethyl borate vapour reacts with wood moisture to form boric acid. The kinetics of this reaction, however, are very fast. This limits treatment to timber dried to very low wood moisture contents.
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri


An investigation to assess the feasibility of developing an accelerated laboratory test to determine the abrasion resistance of lesser-used timber species for use in marine constructio
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20317
The paper describes the evaluation of a laboratory-accelerated test to compare the shingle abrasion resistance of current and potential timbers for use in marine construction. Useful results were achieved in 47.5 hours, but identified a number of issues to be resolved for the test to be refined and the subsequent results to be interpreted correctly.
G S Sawyer, J R Williams


Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described.
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles


Natural durability studies in an accelerated field simulator - A novel approach
1983 - IRG/WP 2197
A study of the natural durability of untreated timbers to both decay and termite attack is described. The work illustrates the versatility of the Accelerated Field Simulator as a novel approach to biodeterioration research.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, J W Creffield, C D Howick


Are fungal cellar tests really necessary?
1989 - IRG/WP 2333
During the past decade the range of methodology used to evaluate wood preservative potential has significantly expanded. At the forefront of these new tools available to the scientist·is the fungal cellar. This technique, as currently applied, involves the exposure of treated and untreated samples to conditions of moisture and temperature which ensure optimum fungal attack. By comparison data with that obtained on similar preservative systems in conventional stake tests, acceleration factors for predicting performance have been developed. This discussion paper examines the philosophy influencing the development of fungal cellar testing, and provides an alternative viewpoint.
J N R Ruddick


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