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Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry


Laboratory tests on artificial weathering of Quercus rubra crossties
1986 - IRG/WP 2252
Clear red oak (Quercus rubra) blocks were used to evaluate various types of accelerated aging tests including boil, steaming, and cyclic weathering. It was found that the repeated vacuum and pressure treatment of wood in water, steaming, oven-dry, and freezing appeared to be most effective in reducing the MOE in compression and hardness modules of wood specimens. Red oak crossties which were pressure treated with creosote - coal tar preservative were tested using the cyclic aging technique. This method will be used to establish correlation between short-term accelerated aging test results and long-term in service performance of wood crossties.
P Chow, A J Reinschmidt, E J Barenberg, S L Lewis


Industrial fixation of chromium based wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 3630
Fixation is an abstract and non-defined process. Nevertheless it is a specified requirement in most impregnation standards. The impregnation industry is facing increased pressure to deliver fixed products and to increase the safety of the handling of impregnated products. Industrial fixation of impregnated wood can be obtained by using different methods. The purpose of the process is to transform hexavalent chromium to the trivalent stage, where also arsenic and copper compounds are fixed. Through laboratory and practical tests A/S The Danish Wood Treating Co.Ltd (DWT) has developed an accelerated industrial fixation system. The system has been developped for accelerated fixation of chromium based wood preservatives in Pinus sylvestris. To satisfy the requirement of avoiding dripping outside the impregnation plant and hence the possibility of soil contamination, the process has been accomodated to provide a surface dry and non-dripping product at the end of the cycle. To support the process and to set the results in perspective a simple method of establishing the degree of fixation has been developped.
T Christensen


The effects of accelerated drying of green Pinus radiata on its attractiveness to Anobium punctatum as an egg-laying site
1984 - IRG/WP 1199
The methods and results are given for a series of experiments in drying Pinus radiata sapwood under a variety of conditions, then exposing the material to Anobium punctatum egg-laying. The results showed very clearly that the attractiveness of the wood to gravid females was drastically reduced when dried from green at temperatures much above 35°C. Both simple oven drying and steam kilning produced the effect. Attempts to reverse the effect, or develop it in already seasoned wood, indicated that it was a phenomenon related to the green state, i.e. it could not be induced at any other time, and this in combination with special drying techniques results suggests that it is oxidative in character. On current evidence it seems unlikely that fungi/bacteria have a major role in the effect.
D J Cross


Chapter 14 - Accelerated fixation of CCA-treated bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-14
Chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) fixation study on impregnated (with adequate w/v 6% CCA solution) then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of airdried borakbamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to low fixation in boiled (86.18% fixation), oven-dried (67.11% fixation), normal (82.02% fixation) and 24h air-dried (84.87% fixation) slices.
A K Lahiry


Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund


Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evaporation. Satisfactory penetration of TBTO into initially methanol-saturated samples occurred in a similar period. The factors influencing. such treatments are discussed. High initial moisture content of the wood and a high operating temperature are particularly desirable. Some aspects of the possible commercial operation of the process are discussed.
J A Petty


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Low temperature drying conditions of Pinus radiata wood for avoiding internal stain
1989 - IRG/WP 3507
It has been observed that, if in little sawmills, timber is dried with a low temperature schedule, it arrives at destination with internal sapstain besides of superficial mould. In this study, the lowest drying temperature at which wood should be exposed for sterilization, which results to be 52°C, is searched. It is not possible to avoid entrainment of pentachlorophenol, even though a waiting period of 72 hours after dipping the wood in a pentachlorophenate/borax solution before drying is considered. The residual content of pentachlorophenol in wood should be at least 400 µg/cm² or the moisture content less than 23% for avoiding the development of mould.
M C Rose


Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls.
M J Collins, P Vinden


The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used.
P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparative performance of new wood preservative formulations in an environment that accurately reflects field conditions.
P Turner, D Conradie


Studies on accelerated ageing procedures with TBTO-treated wood
1985 - IRG/WP 2244
The efficacy of various procedures for accelerated ageing of organotin based wood preservatives in treated wood has been investigated. It was found that leaching of the treated wood samples in water according to the European Standard EN 84 was not satisfactory for organotin based preservatives and is probably also unsuitable even for other types of organic solvent preservatives. Keeping tributyltin oxide (TBTO) treated samples in a heating cabinet at 70°C for five weeks, however, had a considerable effect on the breakdown of TBTO and the subsequent decay test. Therefore, an ageing procedure involving a heating period should be considered for all organic solvent wood preservatives. The investigation also confirmed that elevated temperatures accelerate the degradation of TBTO and that there is a strong correlation between the percentage of TBTO in the wood and its resistance against decay.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, W Hintze


Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest of wood treaters, mainly because of its potential use in permanent wooden foundations. We identified this trend and extended our research work to the treatability of spruce lumber.
R Rak


Borate thermal treatments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3715
Green, partially seasoned (air-dried, steam conditioned), or kiln-dried southern pine timbers were treated thermally using 15% disodiumoctaborate tetrahydrate solution. After treatment, sections were stored under non-drying conditions to allow for diffusion. Results showed that effective treatment meeting the AWPA minimum retention (0.17 B203 pcf [2.72 kg/m³] in the outer inch) and penetration (2.5-in [64-mm] or 85% of the sapwood) could be obtained only with certain combinations of seasoning, treatment, and diffusion storage. The best results in terms of both retention and penetration were obtained with material steamed and stored prior to treatment using a 10-min hot bath time. Kiln-dried timbers could not be treated effectively. The results suggest that non-conforming treatment of green or partially seasoned timbers will require higher solution concentrations, higher hot bath temperatures, and/or longer diffusion periods to meet required standards. Results also indicated that treatment of smaller stock in dimension sizes (up to 2-in [50-mm]) should be feasible.
H M Barnes, R W Landers, L H Williams


The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves


Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged to 6 and 14 days, and branding became a requirement. At the same time, treating companies replaced CCA with arsenic-free preservatives, and started using processes for accelerated fixation. Drying of treated wood was started to be used widely.
B Moldrup


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins


Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning.
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri


Water-repellent additive for CCA
1991 - IRG/WP 3655
Hickson have developed a water repellent additive for incorporation into copper-chromium-arsenate timber treatment solutions. The water repellent emulsion shows good stability in the treatment solution, is easily incorporated and applied in a single stage treatment. No modifications to the additive is safe to treatment schedule are usually needed and use. Weathering of the treated wood is substantially inhibited by the presence of the additive. Adhesion of paints is not affected.
P Warburton, R F Fox, J A Cornfield


Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
N Vidovic


Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved in chloroform; the timber species used was pine sapwood, (Pinus sylvestris L.). The method of seasoning had no influence on the toxic values of boric acid. With the g-BHC, however, the toxic values gradually increased with rising kiln temperatures (20°C, 70°C, 105°C). With boric acid the position of the sapwood samples in the log had no influence on the toxic efficacy; with g-BHC the efficacy was slightly greater in the outer sapwood, compared with the inner sapwood. The test temperatures (20°C, 24°C, 28°C) yielded different toxicity results for boric acid. At 24°C and 28°C the threshold values were somewhat below those of 20°C; they agreed with the values obtained at 20°C after a longer test period. With g-BHC different temperatures did not affect the results. An explanation is suggested for the causes of the influence exerted by the kiln temperature and wood properties on the toxic values of g-BHC. There was good agreement between the toxic values obtained in the different institutes.
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli


Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning, evacuation and alternating pressure method treatment. Timber Preservation Authority penetration and retention requirements can be met in approximately 4-5 h. The optimum schedule, however, included a 12 hour holding period between steaming and preservative treatment. A method of applying boron preservatives as a vapour is described, Trimethyl borate vapour reacts with wood moisture to form boric acid. The kinetics of this reaction, however, are very fast. This limits treatment to timber dried to very low wood moisture contents.
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri


Accelerated ageing of preservatives in treated wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3476
New preservatives are tested in the laboratory and often in field tests before they are used commercially. Some preservatives, however, tested in the laboratory do not show the expected stability when used in service. The differences between laboratory tests and practical use can never be completely eliminated but must be minimized as far as possible by relevant testing methods. Studies of the effect of different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and the wood preserving capacity of six different fungicides or combinations thereof have been carried out. Chemicals tested were tributyltinoxide (TBTO), tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN), furmecyclox, benzalkoniumchloride (AAC) + guazatin and pentachlorophenol. The ageing procedures included exposure of test specimens in a wind tunnel (according to EN 73), in an oven at 40°C, 60°C and 70°C, leaching (according to EN 84) and combinations of these procedures. The influence of the different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and toxic effect of different fungicides was obvious and, for some procedures and chemicals, comparable with experiences from practice.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, B Jensen, C-E Sundman


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