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Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
N Vidovic

Window test. Direct testing of wood resistance to decay: A study of its fitness, its reliability and its accelerating factor
1984 - IRG/WP 2219
This is the results of an experiment using the window-test specimens, exposing the specimens to three different types of testing procedure: 1. Natural infestation in the open air; 2. Artificial infestation and exposure in the open air; 3. Artificial infestation in a green-house. The results show good similiraties of the three parallel tests in term of decay, and assess the reliability of the window-test, its fitness and particularly its accelerating factor.
G R Y Déon, L N Trong

Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund

How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen

A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield

Studies on accelerated ageing procedures with TBTO-treated wood
1985 - IRG/WP 2244
The efficacy of various procedures for accelerated ageing of organotin based wood preservatives in treated wood has been investigated. It was found that leaching of the treated wood samples in water according to the European Standard EN 84 was not satisfactory for organotin based preservatives and is probably also unsuitable even for other types of organic solvent preservatives. Keeping tributyltin oxide (TBTO) treated samples in a heating cabinet at 70°C for five weeks, however, had a considerable effect on the breakdown of TBTO and the subsequent decay test. Therefore, an ageing procedure involving a heating period should be considered for all organic solvent wood preservatives. The investigation also confirmed that elevated temperatures accelerate the degradation of TBTO and that there is a strong correlation between the percentage of TBTO in the wood and its resistance against decay.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, W Hintze

Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparative performance of new wood preservative formulations in an environment that accurately reflects field conditions.
P Turner, D Conradie

The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves

Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse

Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry

Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse

Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning, evacuation and alternating pressure method treatment. Timber Preservation Authority penetration and retention requirements can be met in approximately 4-5 h. The optimum schedule, however, included a 12 hour holding period between steaming and preservative treatment. A method of applying boron preservatives as a vapour is described, Trimethyl borate vapour reacts with wood moisture to form boric acid. The kinetics of this reaction, however, are very fast. This limits treatment to timber dried to very low wood moisture contents.
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri

Accelerated ageing of preservatives in treated wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3476
New preservatives are tested in the laboratory and often in field tests before they are used commercially. Some preservatives, however, tested in the laboratory do not show the expected stability when used in service. The differences between laboratory tests and practical use can never be completely eliminated but must be minimized as far as possible by relevant testing methods. Studies of the effect of different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and the wood preserving capacity of six different fungicides or combinations thereof have been carried out. Chemicals tested were tributyltinoxide (TBTO), tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN), furmecyclox, benzalkoniumchloride (AAC) + guazatin and pentachlorophenol. The ageing procedures included exposure of test specimens in a wind tunnel (according to EN 73), in an oven at 40°C, 60°C and 70°C, leaching (according to EN 84) and combinations of these procedures. The influence of the different accelerated ageing procedures on the chemical degradation and toxic effect of different fungicides was obvious and, for some procedures and chemicals, comparable with experiences from practice.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, B Jensen, C-E Sundman

Are fungal cellar tests really necessary?
1989 - IRG/WP 2333
During the past decade the range of methodology used to evaluate wood preservative potential has significantly expanded. At the forefront of these new tools available to the scientist·is the fungal cellar. This technique, as currently applied, involves the exposure of treated and untreated samples to conditions of moisture and temperature which ensure optimum fungal attack. By comparison data with that obtained on similar preservative systems in conventional stake tests, acceleration factors for predicting performance have been developed. This discussion paper examines the philosophy influencing the development of fungal cellar testing, and provides an alternative viewpoint.
J N R Ruddick

Leaching of Active Components from Preservative Treated Timber. Stage 1: Semi-Field Testing
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20302
The project is aiming at finding realistic leaching rates from preservative-treated wood in use class 3 (above ground). The project focuses on developing a field trial method for investigating leaching. Panels are subjected to outdoor exposure under natural weather conditions at a test field at the Danish Technological Institute. The leachate is collected and monitored by chemical analysis of the active ingredients. The project is ongoing and the paper presents results from approximately 12 months’ of exposure. The study includes commercially available organic and inorganic fungicides using 4 different application methods: vacuum-pressure-, double-vacuum-, flow coat and supercritical treatment. Different test set-ups examine the influence of a number of different parameters. The results obtained from outdoor exposure will be compared with a laboratory test method (proposal of CEN/OECD, DOC TC38 WG 27 N039). The method investigated has proved to be useful in characterising the leaching behaviour from preservative-treated wood. The results from the present project are intended to serve as part of the basic documentation according to Directive 98/8/EC (The Biocidal Products Directive, BPD) for leaching of active ingredients in use class 3.
N Morsing, B Lindegaard

An investigation to assess the feasibility of developing an accelerated laboratory test to determine the abrasion resistance of lesser-used timber species for use in marine constructio
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20317
The paper describes the evaluation of a laboratory-accelerated test to compare the shingle abrasion resistance of current and potential timbers for use in marine construction. Useful results were achieved in 47.5 hours, but identified a number of issues to be resolved for the test to be refined and the subsequent results to be interpreted correctly.
G S Sawyer, J R Williams

A comparison of the effectiveness of a vacuum oven and a wind tunnel in the accelerated ageing of treated wood by evaporation
1989 - IRG/WP 2334
R J Orsler, G E Holland

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369 1/m). Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in kickback from spruce treatment (~ 750 ppm) was approximately half that in Scots pine kickback (~ 1400 ppm), and were substantially less than TOC generated during treatment of radiata pine (~ 2000 ppm). Extent of CCA fixation (spruce: 93%, Scots pine: 97%) was similar to that obtained with radiata pine (97%). To reduce post-treatment drippage, caused particularly by the refractory nature of spruce, a modified Bethell process was found most appropriate for MPP treatment rather than modified Lowry schedules used with radiata pine. Use of hot CCA solutions did not improve penetration into spruce and some collapse (washboarding) of early wood was a feature of its treatment.
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin

Accelerated wood decay in a soil bed test under greenhouse conditions compared with a stake test under field condition
1991 - IRG/WP 2384
The rate of decay of oak, beech, Douglas fir, pine and spruce stakes in an outside test field were compared with the decay rate of the same species in a greenhouse soil-bed test. Strength loss after four and six months respectively was measured by determining the compression strength parallel to the grain. The results show that all species, strength loss in the greenhouse was 2 to 4 times higher than under field conditions. The rate of strength loss correlates with the rate of weight loss.
J E Polman, S G Michon, H Militz

Estimation of service life of durable timber species by accelerated decay test and fungal cellar test
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20249
Many kinds of durable wood species for outdoor uses has been imported from all over the world to Japan. However information on the natural durability of these species is not sufficient to estimate the service life of them in the climate of Japan. Highly durable species such as Jarrh, Teak, Ipe, Ekki, Selangan batu, Red wood, Western red cedar showed no significant percent mass losses by accelerated decay test according to the JIS Z2101, but some of them are degraded during fungal cellar test for 4 years . The decay rating (0:sound to 5:totally decayed) of them after 4 years exposure was 1.0, 2.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 2.3, 5.0 respectively. This results indicated that the conventional accelerated decay test could not evaluate the natural durability of these highly durable species at all. Solid wood specimens treated with boiling water at 120? for one hour are subjected to the same JIS test, and the obtained percent mass losses of these species are 1.2, 2.9, 1.9, 3.8, 4.7, 17.5, 0.0 % by a brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, and 17.5, 14.3, 3.3, 8.2, 4.2, 0.0, 18.3 % by a white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor respectively. Pre-treatment of solid wood specimens for removal of heartwood extractives before a accelerated decay test would be an effective way to evaluate the natural durability of highly durable species in a laboratory.
K Yamamoto, I Momohara

Practical testing of wood preservatives to prevent weathering damage and infection by micro-organisms on spruce and pine
1989 - IRG/WP 3530
Brush application, is generally used to prevent wooden window frames from decay caused by influence of weathering and fungi. Accordingly 10 boards of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) were treated with 10 commercially used wood preservatives. The efficiency of fungicides by using chiptest and blue stain test (EN 152), the effectiveness against weathering as well as the course of colonization of microfungi were measured on boards, that had been hurted by sawing. Results after one year's exposure showed that neither the normally required amount of 250 ml/m² nor the effective depth of penetration of the fungizidal equipment had been realized by using brush application. The smaller the permeability of the coating system, the more likely ideal conditions for the growth of fungi (e.g. basidiomycetes) are provided, answering hurtings of the coating and moisture contents of more than 30%. The variety of fungi (on pine 32 and on spruce 17 species) can be a result of anatomical differences and distinguished compounds of the wood species. After 24, respectively 36 weeks of exposure the frequent occurrance of basidiomycetous yeasts (Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa), blue stain fungi (Aureobasidium pullulans, Hormonema dematioides), Epicoccum nigrum, Alternaria alternata and Phoma species was noted.
R Gründlinger, O Janotta, H Melzer, K Messner

Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described.
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles

Natural durability studies in an accelerated field simulator - A novel approach
1983 - IRG/WP 2197
A study of the natural durability of untreated timbers to both decay and termite attack is described. The work illustrates the versatility of the Accelerated Field Simulator as a novel approach to biodeterioration research.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, J W Creffield, C D Howick

A new accelerated field test for termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1178
A new accelerated field test method for termites is described. Two series of tests were conducted with this accelerated method and the results were very encouraging.
W E Conradie, A Jansen

Patterns of long-term performance - How well are they predicted from accelerated tests and should evaluations consider parameters other than averages?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20130
This paper is a discussion of whether different service-life distribution patterns of products treated with unlike preservatives can be predicted, modeled, characterized, or even anticipated from accelerated laboratory tests. Graphic displays of data from Forest Products Laboratory field plots with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated stakes demonstrate the importance of local environment as a factor that affects field performance and exhibits differences in dose-response patterns among treatments. These distribution patterns are discussed with reference to early failures, first quartile and median failure times, and distribution about medians. Questions are then asked about the relevance of these parameters to practical applications, about the need to consider population characteristics other than average in evaluations on new preservatives, and about the capability of accelerated tests to estimate these parameters.
R C De Groot, J W Evans

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