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End grain sealants for wood preservation studies
1985 - IRG/WP 3341
The results of tests with possible end grain sealants for wood preservation studies are reported. The epoxy resins used gave satisfactory performance on wet or dry Sitka spruce and have been used with success for diffusion treatment studies.
R J Murphy, N A Summers

Summary of development of pile wrappings in Los Angeles Harbour
1987 - IRG/WP 4141
G Horeczko

Influence of aliphatic acids on spore germination of wood decay fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 2224
Influences of eight saturated fatty acids (C5-C10, C12 and C16) on spores of four isolates of wood decaying basidiomycetes (white rot fungi: Poria tenuis and Trametes hispida; brown rot fungus: Gloeophyllum trabeum [two isolates]) were observed in-vitro. Spore response after 24 hr on malt extract agar containing 10, 10² , or 10³ ppm of each fatty acid included: no effect on normal germination, delayed germination or restricted mycelial growth, vacuolation and degeneration of spore cytoplasm, or germination inhibition without loss of spore integrity. C7-C10 acids destroyed spores of all fungi at 10² ppm whereas spores remained 'intact' at 10³ ppm of the same acids. C12 destroyed spores of the brown rot isolates but not the white rot fungi, and C16 lacked effect on all fungi at all concentrations. C5 and C6 destroyed spores only at 10³ ppm.
E L Schmidt

A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment
1984 - IRG/WP 4113
Aims are: a) to determine the effectiveness of elastomeric polyurethane as a protective coating against marine wood boring animals in a range of tropical and tempreate sites; b) to compare the adhesion of polyurthane coatings on different wood species exposed in seawater; c) to record the severity of attack in failed samples and to identify the causal marine organisms.
R A Eaton

A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of poyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment. 1st Interim Report
1988 - IRG/WP 4145
Wood samples coated with elastomeric polyurethane (ca. 50 mils thick) were exposed for up to 2 years in 12 tropical and temperate marine test sites with known teredinid, pholad and/or crustacean infestations. All uncoated control samples were destroyed or partially destroyed. Polyurethane-coated samples were not attacked, the surfaces of the coating were sound and the polyurethane adhered well to the wood samples.
R A Eaton

The efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment. Final Report -10 Year Assessment
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10170
The results of an IRG collaborative marine trial to investigate the long-term permanence and efficacy of polyurethane coatings against marine borers are reported. PU-coated wood samples were exposed at a range of sites from tropical to cold temperate locations. The marine borer species present at the sites included teredinids, pholads, limnoriids and sphaeromatids so that each site offered its own peculiar degree of hazard. At most sites the integrity of the PU-coating was sound and wood samples were undamaged by marine borers after periods of exposure extending up to ca. 10 years. Where damage to the wood was recorded, mechanical abrasion of the coating had exposed the wood to attack by teredinids and pholads at one site and at a second site, sphaeromatids had perforated the coating. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of the protection afforded to submerged maritime timber structures coated with elastomeric polyurethane.
R A Eaton

Evaluation of some polyurethanes as protective marine coatings for wood
1985 - IRG/WP 4115
Several polyurethane formulations were evaluated in the marine environment as possible replacements for Irish felt used on U.S. Navy minesweepers as a marine borer barrier between the main wooden hull and an outer, wooden sheathing which covers it. Pine panels coated with the candidate materials were tightly juxtaposed with untreated pine baitwood to simulate the hull/sheathing configuration, the baitwood serving as a substrate in which settling borer larve could metamorphose. Primarily, the purpose was to see if adult borers could perforate the coatings at the coating/wood interface and enter the wood beneath, however the ability of these coatings to survive in sea water for an extended time was also noted. Panels were exposed from 48 to 89 months in Panamanian waters. Teredinids were able to perforate four of the coatings from the baitwood; pholads were able to perforate all of the coatings with ease and were the major cause of coating damage at the coating/baitwood interface. None of the coating surfaces exposed directly to the sea water were damaged by teredinids or pholads, however the coatings on some of the panels were eventually reduced to tatters with large sections of the original specimen missing. This was a result of borer infestation of the underlying wood via prior pholad-induced holes which were uncovered when the panel faces were reversed in the panel/baitwood configuration during the exposure.
J D Bultman, J E Pinto

A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples in the marine environment. 2nd Interim Report
1990 - IRG/WP 4161
The results of a collaborative international test to evaluate the performance of elastomeric polyurethane coatings of wooden test samples exposed in seawater at 13 sites around the world are reported. The samples have been exposed at sites with known infestations by molluscan and/or crustacean wood borers. Performance data for up to 4 years exposure at some sites is presented providing information on the soundness and adherence of the coatings to wood and the degree of surface fouling. To date, all samples coated with polyurethane remain unattacked by marine borers.
R A Eaton

Observations on the activities of Sphaeroma in Australia
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10059
Polyurethane coated timber specimens are being attacked at Townsville by Sphaeroma terebrans in the tidal zone. To understand this marine borer better, the results from several other marine tests at Townsville are briefly described, and information about Sphaeroma spp. from elsewhere in Australia is presented. At Townsville, Sphaeroma seems to prefer the shady side of timber fender piles. Also, it is rarely found below the tidal zone. After two years, CCA-treated slash pine mooring piles were lightly attacked, and after 5.7-8 years eight double-treated eucalypt fender piles were only lightly attacked, while three were moderately attacked in the tidal zone. Untreated turpentine piles last about 10-16 years in Townsville, due to the damage caused by Sphaeroma. At nearby Bowen, Sphaeroma terebrans in two experimental piles died after the piles were pulled from the sea, and took more than 3 years to recolonise the piles after they were reinstalled. During this time after reinstallation, the original Sphaeroma terebrans holes were inhabited by Sphaeroma walkeri, a non-wood borer. At a brackish water test site at Port Stephens, Sphaeroma is more often found below low tide. It also prefers to bore upwards rather than downwards, perhaps to lessen the amount of silt entering its burrow. In the southern state of Victoria, Sphaeroma is not an economic problem, causing only minor etches and few holes. There in the tidal zone, it can scallop out disused longicorn beetle emergence holes to give an unusual pattern of attack on the pile surface.
L J Cookson

Remedial treatments of glulam = diffusion of active ingredients through glue lines from solid wood diffusable preservatives
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30117
Diffusable preservatives are very suitable for use in remedial treatments of laminated beams in which too high moisture content involves the development of wood destroying fungi. The diffusion of active ingredients (boric acid, disodium octoborate, bifluoride) is well observed in solid wood but in a composite wood, the glue lines may appear not only as a barrier for the diffusion but also, may be mechanically affected by the diffused active ingredients. Shear tests were carried out on glulam specimens manufactured with different types of glues: resorcine (RF), ureaformaldehyde (UF), polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinylacetate (PVAc). Diffusion tests were also carried out in accelerated wetted glulam specimens with three diffusable solid preservatives differently exposed in the test samples. Results observed with boron compounds showed that their diffusion does not affect the mechanical resistance of the beams. In another hand, interesting results were obtained concerning the passage of boron and bifluoride through some types of glues. These results will contribute to the optimization of the remedial treatment of glulams.
D Dirol, S Mouras

Performance of different treatments and finishes on wood out of ground contact. Preliminary results
1984 - IRG/WP 2221
Pinus and Eucalyptus L-joints treated with CCA, a water dispersable PCP and untreated ones were painted according to seven different finish's schedules and exposed at two sites in State of Sao Paulo. After ten months of exposure, it was possible to verify that preservative treatment improve the performance of both wood and finish. It was also possible to observe that wood substrate, preservative treatment, kind of finish and site of exposure had a great influence on finishes' surface colonization by both algae and mould fungi.
S Milano

A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples in the marine environment. 3rd Interim Report
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10046
The results of al long-term marine trial to assess the protective effect of polyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed at different sites around the world are reported. The condition of samples exposed in the sea for up to 88 months was generally sound, although instances of marine borer infestation were reported at two sites. At one site, mechanical damage of a non-biological nature is believed to have breached the polyurethane coating resulting in attack of the underlying wood by teredinids and pholads. At a second site, infestation by sphaeromatids had perforated the coating after 4 years exposure.
R A Eaton

"XYLOPHENE ANTI-TERMITES" :A complete range of treatment products against termites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30230
Dyrup-Xylochimie purpose for several years efficient treatment products for timber and wood materials, with its trade mark : "Xylophèn". As everybody know, termites become an important problem for construction in France. So important that, a national law was voted in May 1999, to define areas where termites are present, in order to protect future landowner. To prevent efficiently termites damages, Dyrup-Xylochimie has developped, with its suppliers, a complete range of treatment product, included wood treatment products : - An anti-termites polyurethane foam : "Xylophèn Anti-Termites Mousse Polyuréthane" - An anti-termites bitumi nous emulsion products for the protection of underground walls : "Xylophèn Anti-Termites Fondations et murs enterrés" - A range of liquid treatment for soil and/or wall treatment : "Xylophèn Biflex", "Xylophèn sols attaqués", "Xylophèn sols sains" - Bait treatment based on an active ingredient named Sulfluramid : "Xylophèn FirstLine GT" and "Xylophèn FirstLine". This paper describe products, included in this range, concerning their efficacy, their function and their application. The aim of this range is to purpose different kind of solution to prevent termites damages, regarding environmental aspect, feasibility aspect, effiency aspect and cost aspect. Xylophèn: Trade Mark of Dyrup-Xylochimie Biflex and FirstLine: Trade Mark of FMC Corporation.
L Cubizolles, E Wozniak

Comparison of exterior performance of two coating systems based polyurethane applied Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea orientalis L. wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40588
Some surface changes in sapwood and heartwood of two species before applying clear-coating were characterized after accelerated weathering time. Wood specimens covered with two types polyurethane (PU) films were also observed in accelerated weathering exposure. In this study, changes on the wood surface were compared of between wood specimens covered with two types polyurethane (PU) films after irradiation. The study was carried out on sapwoods and heartwoods two wood species; Fagus sylvatica L., Pinus sylvestris L. The artificial weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 hours UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 minutes according to ASTM G 53-96. The surface changes of the weathered sapwood and heartwood samples applied clear-coating were characterized by surface roughness and color measurements. Color measurements were made by a with a Konica Minolta CM-600d (Canada) at several intervals (0-24-72-168-240-336-408-504-600-672 hours) in artificial weathering of treated and untreated wood. Additionally surface roughness was measured on the surface of all wood samples, unweathered and after 672 hours of weathering by a Mitutoyo Surfest SJ-301 instrument. According to the results, the scots pine and spruce sapwood samples provided better protection color changes than the scots pine and spruce heartwood samples showed lower color changes. The highest increasing surface roughness values were on the wood samples applied 2.system clear-coating (Y) by reason of the wood surfaces contain several checks, splits and cracks caused by weathering. The wood surface applied 1.system clear-coating (X) showed that no high cracks and substantially surface properties changes were observed significantly due to weathering.
Ö Özgenç, Û Cafer Yıldız

Study of UV resistance and natural weathering of coatings on chemically modified wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40629
In this study, UV resistance and weathering performance of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) modified with benzoyl chloride and acetic anhydride was studied. Performance of polyurethane based wood coatings on modified wood was also evaluated. Unmodified and chemically modified specimens were exposed to accelerated and natural weathering. Modified and unmodified wood specimens were coated with commercially available polyurethane based transparent and opaque finishes and exposed to natural weathering for a period of 2 years. Physical and chemical deteriorations on uncoated / coated wood panels due to weathering were periodically monitored. Analysis of colour changes and chemical deteriorations of weathered specimens showed rapid discolouration and lignin degradation on unmodified wood surface exposed to weathering. Modified wood showed resistance to weathering and was partially effective in inducing UV resistance as compared to unmodified wood. Results clearly indicate that performance of coating can be significantly improved by chemically modifying wood substrate with benzoyl chloride. Benzoylation of wood polymers improved coatings adhesion and enhanced life of paints by 3-4 times. The performance of opaque coating was better than transparent coating, presumably due to photodegradation of wood substrate in transparent coating.
K K Pandey, K Srinivas

Study on Fire Resistance of Lightweight Panels Made of Honeycomb and Polyurethane Cores
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40645
In response to the increasing demand of lightweight and durable materials in furniture manufacture, potential of different skin types and cores were investigated to make proper lightweight panel. Fire resistance of panels made of different skins and cores were studied to elucidate the board’s behavior exposed to fire. Skins were MDF (3, 6 and 8 mm), particle board, plywood (3 and 5 layers) and cores were polyurethane foam and Kraft paper honeycombs (3 and 4 cm thickness). Fire tests examined according to ISO11925-3. Time of ignition, sustained Ignition time, sustained glowing time, mass loss and charred surface area were measured. The results indicated that by decrease in the thickness of skins, sustained ignition and glowing time and the charred surface area increased and so fire resistance decreased. The samples made of polyurethane core were burning with long yellow flames and short sustained glowing time; while samples made of Kraft paper honeycomb core were burning with short blue flame by long sustained glowing time. The best results were obtained in lightweight panels made of 4 cm Kraft paper honeycomb core and 8 mm medium density fiber board skin.
A Talaei, M Ghofrani, S Pishan

The effect of UV irradiation on some technological properties of different polyurethane varnishes coated plywood panels from veneers dried at different temperatures
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40661
In this study, the effect of UV irradiation on some technological properties of three different polyurethane varnishes coated plywood panels produced from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) veneers manuactured and dried at different temperatures was studied. Accordingly, 32°C log peeling temperature and three different veneer drying temperatures (110, 140 and 160°C) were chosen. Five-ply-plywood panels with 10 mm thick were manufactured by using melamine-urea formaldehyde glue resin with 54% solid content. UV irradiation process, bonding strength, color measurement and surface roughness tests were conducted on plywood panels according to ASTM G53, EN 314, ISO 7724-2 and DIN 4768 standards, respectively. Polyurethane varnish (ingredients: 37% polyurethane, 63% water) coated plywood panels manufactured from Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) veneers dried at 160°C showed the lowest color change values. The best protection on bonding strength was obtained from the polyurethane varnish (ingredients: 60% polyurethane, 11% xylene, 9% ethyl benzene, 20% 3-methoxybutyl acetate, 1% toluene-2,4-disocianate ) coated plywood panels manufactured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) veneers dried at 110°C against UV irradiation.
Ö Özgenç, C Demirkir, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoğlu

Lignin Modification to Produce Sustainable Polyurethane Resin for Wood Coatings
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40682
The use of lignin as the most abundant aromatic natural polymer has been evaluated for use in the production of lignin-based polyurethane resin for coating applications. Coatings are made of resins (ca. 50%), which today are mainly derived from petroleum-based polymers. This study is focused on the development of an environmentally friendly method of modifying lignin to be used as source of natural polyols. Lignin contains both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxyl functional groups and it can be used as a sustainable source of polyol for reaction with isocyanate to form polyurethane resin. However, limited accessibility of hydroxyl groups in lignin is a major problem in promoting the application of lignin as polyol. In this study, organosolv lignin samples (hardwood and softwood) were modified by using a bromide-based ionic liquid. The analysis of lignin samples with phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) before and after modification showed significant increase in the hydroxyl contents of both hardwood and softwood organosolv lignins. As a result, the modified lignins had shown higher reactivity with polyisocyanate used in the study which was also confirmed by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectra of samples. This novel modification method will increase the potential application of lignin as source of natural polyol for production of polyurethane (PU) resins.
M Nejad, M Arefmanesh, S Chandra, J Mostaghimi, E Master

Evaluation of Commercially Available Polyurethane Resin to Develop Non-biocidal Wood Preservation Treatments
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40751
Evaluation of commercially available polyurethane (PU1 and PU2 and polyisocyanate (PNCO) to develop non-biocidal wood preservation treatments have been conducted. A simple method by vacuum impregnation of these resins into beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L) and pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples followed by varied curing process at ambient temperature, 103oC, and 200oC have been performed. Based on the analysis of weight percent gain before (WPG) and after leaching (WPGAL), percentage of leaching (PL), anti swelling efficiency (ASE), wettability (contact angle method), Brinell hardness (H) of beech wood, spectroscopy analysis by FTIR and 13C NMR, and decay durability by percentage of masse loss (ML) of treated and untreated blocks after leaching against white-rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor/CV) for both wood species and brown-rot fungus (Poria placenta/PP and Gloeophyllum trabeum/GT) for pine wood, it can be concluded that PU120% followed with PNCO10% system can be considered as a valuable non-biocidal treatment. The system gave WPG, WPGAL, PL, ASE, wettability, H, and ML by CV, PP, GT respectively at 103oC curing condition are 24.1 ± 1.9%, 19.6 ± 2.5%, 3.1 ± 0.2%, 51.4 ± 4.9%, 54o(60st), 4.91 (T)/3.89 (R) N/mm2, 9.9 ± 5.1% (CV) for beech wood and 13.1 ± 2.8%, 9.8 ± 2.4%, 2.7 ± 0.3%, 47.3 ± 1.2%, 39.4o(60st), 1.3 ± 0.2% (CV), 0.0 ± 0.2%(PP), 1.8 ± 1.1%(GT) for pine wood. A PU2 20% followed with PNCO 10% system could also be used as non-biocidal wood preservative in place where the variation of humidity is low and on non ground contact area.
M Mubarok, Y Sudo Hadi, J Suryana, I W Darmawan, F Simon, S Dumarcay, C Gérardin, P Gérardin