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Low-toxicity DNBP wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3408
Low and very low toxicity single compound preservatives of both excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activity for interior, extrior and ground-contact applications are presented. These are ester derivatives of alkyl dinitrophenols, in particular of 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) and 2-sec-octyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. These esters, of much lower toxicity than DNBP impart to the treated timber co...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen, R Vosloo

The effect of temperature on the rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3293
The rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound wood preservative was measured by soaking samples of wood wool in various preparations of the preservative for arbitrary times followed by immediate leaching in water. The wood wool was then analysed for residual preservative. The results indicated that fixation was very rapid and increased at higher temperatures....
P Vinden

Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%)....
R Gnanaharan

Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis

Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
C-E Sundman

Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride: toxicity to Coniophora puteana when formulated in water and organic solvent
1986 - IRG/WP 2250
Results from agar block tests using Coniophora puteana demonstrate that the biological activity of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride is affected by the nature of the carrier solvent in which it is applied. In contrast to some earlier work, an alkyl ammonium compound in organic solvent formulation was identified that had significantly greater activity than its aqueous equivalent. A simple sol...
D P Blow

Effect of amphiphilic antioxidant alkyl ammonium ascorbate on inhibition of fungal growth: Application to wood preservatives formulation
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30466
Amphiphilic surfactants were synthesized from ascorbic acid and different fatty amines and evaluated for formulation of wood preservation products. Characterization of physicochemical properties of the new compounds indicated classical behavior of cationic surfactants. Antioxidant properties, estimated using methyl linoleate oxidation inhibition method, were similar to that of ascorbic acid teste...
C Gérardin , T Koumbi Mounanga, P Gérardin

Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper

Reducing Extractives Stain in Western Red Cedar Sidewall Shingles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30654
One of the aesthetic challenges that western red cedar shingles face is extractives redistribution stain, particularly in unpainted sidewall applications. Dip and pressure treatments with a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and alkyl amine oxides were investigated for their ability to prevent this stain. After nine months of exposure in Vancouver, extractives stain was present on nearly all...
R Stirling

Formation of hydrophobic wood surface by means of thermal treatment and surface modification with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40738
One of the major shortcomings of wood-based materials compared to technical materials is attributed to their poor dimensional stability in changing climates and in contact with liquid water. Heat treatment induces chemical change with a consequent decreasing of reactivity of the material showing unwanted surface inactivation. Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a widely used sizing agent in papermaking, w...
T Lovaglio, T Meints, L Todaro, W Gindl-Altmutter