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Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz

Conforming to european standards for preservative-treated timber: Specifying with confidence
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20194
A four-year collaborative study between four industrial partners and BRE has assessed timber treated by current UK industrial practices in the light of current European Standards. Data were collected for CCA and creosote treated timber components, and compared with the requirements laid out in EN351-1 and -2. A number of difficulties were encountered that have been described in previous IRG papers (98-20150, 99-20156), such as the poor reproducibility of chemical analyses and variable timber density. This paper describes the conclusions of our collaboration, focusing on the application of the findings and how to overcome any difficulties encountered. The data collected allowed the calculation of figures that have been submitted for inclusion into the UK's proposed national code for preservative-treated timber (DD239). An example is the recommendation of new minimum retention figures for creosote-treated commodities. This paper describes the factors that will enable UK specifiers to use the European Standards with confidence and greater understanding of how they map onto traditional methods of specification. In addition valuable lessons have been learnt applicable to the industry world wide.
E D Suttie, R J Orsler

How best to specify retentions of preservative treatments: kg/m3 or % (m/m)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20151
When specifying treatments according to the European Standard EN 351-1, retentions in the analytical zone are based on the amount of product found to be effective in biological tests; this is expressed in terms of the retention of the product per unit volume (kg/m3) for penetrating treatments and per unit area (g/m2) for superficial treatments. However, to check whether the retentions have been achieved, chemical analyses are carried out where the results are initially expressed as% (m/m). In converting results from% (m/m) to kg/m3 , a value for the density of the wood must be applied that is closely associated with the sample of wood taken for chemical analysis. This is difficult to achieve and it has been suggested that the results from biological tests and the associated retention values be expressed in% (m/m) to avoid this difficulty. For treatments applied by penetrating treatment processes, expression of the retention of a wood preservative product as% (m/m) reduces error. The initial dry weight of the test specimens affects the relationship between retentions expressed as kg/m3 and% (m/m) because heavier test specimens take up less treating solution. The change in the method of expressing the retention of a wood preservative product to% (m/m) is unlikely to have any major effect on the results within a wood species. However, the change reduces the difference between the retentions which are effective in Scots pine sapwood and beech against attack by Coriolus versicolor. Use of% (m/m) instead of g/m2 offers no advantages for superficial treatment processes.
J K Carey

Tebuconazole - a new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1991 - IRG/WP 3680
The great potential of Tebuconazole for wood preservation is demonstrated. Test carried out by official institutes shown that Tebuconazole is particularly effective against wood-rotting basidiomycetes strains. The efficacy of Tebuconazole against the brown rot Gloeophyllum trabeum is outstanding: the toxic value measured in accordane with EN 113, without·ageing, after leaching (EN 84) and after evaporative ageing (EN 73) are below 0.051 kg/m³.
O Exner

Collaborative soft rot experiments 1974. Preliminary analysis of results
1975 - IRG/WP 251
J K Carey, J G Savory

The quantitative determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in treated timber – results of an extended ring test
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20240
The determination of quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) by means of a 2-phase-titration or photometry is a well established procedure for the quantification of cationic detergents in aqueous solutions. It is known that this analytical principle can also be used for the measurement of QAC extracted from treated timber. However only few information are available concerning the reproducibility or the recovery rate of this procedure. In order to validate the whole technique an extended ring test was performed by 8 participants. Impregnated milled spruce with a QAC content of 1000mg/kg was distributed between the partners in a first stage. In a second step milled spruce with an “unknown” lower concentration (220mg/kg) and finally impregnated EN 113 test specimens (3-4kg QAC/m³) were investigated. The sample preparation, the extraction of QAC as well as the quantitative determination were performed according to standard or “in house” procedures. The analytical procedures were used successfully for the quantification of QAC in treated timber ranging from 200 to 1000mg/kg. Furthermore it could be shown that in general the recovery rate varies between ± 5% independent of the analytical method used whereby a higher deviation was found for material with a low QAC content. It was also to be seen that the extraction procedure is by far the most important factor of the analysis.
E Melcher, C Bornkessel, J Gunschera, R Hamberg, H Härtner, H-N Marx, U Schoknecht, J Wittenzellner

A review of the implementation of results-based standards for preservative treated timber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20156
European standards for the specification of preservative treated timber are written in terms of the results achieved in the commodity by the treatment process. This is described in terms of penetration and retention of preservative. Results from a study on the commercial application of this approach in the UK show the difficulties associated with applying the new European standards; particularly with respect to obtaining consistent analytical results for the loading of preservative in treated timber. The paper also presents a review of the process and experiences of implementing results-based standards in other countries around the world. Examples are taken from Scandinavia, Australia, New Zealand and the USA and are used to suggest where improvements can be made for reducing the variability in current practice.
E D Suttie, A S Hughes, R J Orsler

Leaching from field test stakes. Results from two different methods of analysis
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50013
Field test stakes treated with Boliden K33 containing copper, chromium and arsenic exposed at three different fields in Sweden and rejected due to decay, have in two studies been analysed regarding leaching and remaining preservatives. The stakes have been exposed during 20 to 43 years. The density of the stakes and content of copper, chromium and arsenic have been determined in the top part of the stakes (above ground) and bottom part (in ground) separately. The density of the stakes after exposure were similar in the top and in the bottom of the stakes while it was lower in the middle, ground line part. Leaching from small sections of the stakes indicate that 23% of copper, 19% of chromium and 25% of arsenic leached from the wood during exposure. Leaching from stakes to the environment, including the preservative in the totally lost decayed part, is, according to the analyses, 50% for copper, -4% for chromium and 36% for arsenic as an average for all stakes. The results from the two studies give different results. This focuses on the importance of sampling and methods of analyses as well as the necessity of being careful when evaluating the results.
F G Evans, M-L Edlund

Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP II: Results from field studies
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30429
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and the non-biocidal BHT was evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. ACQ-C was a positive control and untreated SYP stakes were negative controls. Tests were installed at two separate field sites in MS that represent two different AWPA hazard zones. Samples were taken every 3 months over a 15 month period and visually evaluated for termite attack and decay. Samples were processed and whole genomic DNA was extracted for molecular analyses. Upon initial amplification of DNA using both specific and general primers, the presence or absence of target fungi was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. We are currently using T-RFLP to analyze the patterns of microbial colonization over time and in response to external stimuli (i.e., wood preservative treatment) to identify potential shifts in microbial community. Preliminary results indicate that the presence of non-basidiomycete fungi (i.e. molds, stains, and soft rots) are uniformly distributed throughout the samples regardless of treatment, while basidiomycetes are less common and severe decreases in overall basidiomycete populations occurred during periods of drought at both test sites.
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl

Microbial Community Analysis Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis: Field Study Results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20377
The effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the fungal community in southern yellow pine (SYP) were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Field stakes treated with 0.25% and 0.37% ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C), 0.1 and 0.25% CTN, and 0.1 and 0.25% CTN combined with 2% BHT were installed with untreated controls in field sites in Mississippi. Stakes were sampled at 90 days intervals and rated for decay damage. Microbial DNA was extracted from wood and amplified using non-specific (bacteria and fungi) and specific (basidiomycete) primers. Alpha diversity (richness and diversity), species composition, and beta diversity, were all calculated using T-RFLP data. Results indicate the presence of wood preservatives containing biocides: (1) increases initial colonization by bacteria that decreases over time, (2) slows the initial colonization of field stakes by fungi resulting in lower richness and diversity that increased over time, and (3) increased richness and diversity of basidiomycetes. Preservative treatment also changed the community composition of bacteria, fungi, and basidiomycetes found in wood, that became more similar over time to untreated controls for fungi and basidiomycetes, but not bacteria. The beta diversity of treated samples was less similar in early stages of exposure (3-9 months), but coalesced over time into stable populations that were similar to fungal and basidiomycete communities in untreated controls, but still bacteria remained different. Correlations were found between depletion of 0.1% CTN and increasing bacterial and fungal diversity.
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, M L Prewitt, W J Diehl

Life Cycle Assessment of treated timber: methodological aspects and first results
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50264
Environmental information on products is more and more required as a key to the market, and the building sector in Europe is certainly advanced in that direction. In France, Environmental Product Declarations are becoming very common for construction products. Therefore, the CTB P+ and CTB B+ certification comity as commissioned FCBA to perform the Life Cycle Analysis of treated timber in order to publish EPDs of different types of treated timber products. The methodological choices and some selected first results about energy and climate change are presented.
E Vial, M Bertrand, C Cornillier, G Deroubaix

Analysis of tebuconazole in wood treated with Tanalith™ E
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20158
A simple gas chromatographic method for determining tebuconazole in Tanalith™ E treated wood is described. A two step sequential extraction procedure with methanol was used. Sample extracts were analysed without cleanup or concentration using capillary column GC with thermionic specific detection. The performance of the method was assessed using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood, radiata pine heartwood, and spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) sapwood as substrates. Recoveries from fortified samples ranged from 97% to 103%. The precision of the method was assessed by analysing a number of actual treated wood samples over a range of retention levels, which produced relative standard deviations in the range of 3% to 8%.
D E Ferlazzo

The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer

Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi
M-L Edlund

Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 600 mm³ (T x R x L). About 30 preservatives mainly water born but 20% of oil born preservatives included, were examined for this test. We checked the damage rating every year by the observation. The service life of the preservative treated stakes were estimated at the period when the average damage rating of stakes were reached beyond 2.5 . Creosote oil, creosote oil mixed heavy oil (75:25 and 50:50) and creosote oil mixed coal tar (75:25 and 50:50) are still sound conditions for 33 years. CCA (JIS K 1554 Type 1) 2% and Tancas C 2% are still sound conditions for 28 years. Because of soft rot, the treated Buna specimens were shorten as ones of treated Sugi.
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka

Results of stake tests on wood preservatives (Progress report to 1974)
1975 - IRG/WP 361
A number of field stake trials on preservative-treated wood have been carried out at Princes Risborough Laboratory from 1928 to the present day, and many of the tests still continue. This paper presents in detail the results obtained to date, covering about 15 000 individual test stakes exposed over the period.
D F Purslow

Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma

Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert

Exposure trial at tropical marine sites of pyrethroid/creosote mixtures as wood preservatives: Preliminary results
1989 - IRG/WP 4155
Pinus sylvestris sapwood blocks measuring 25 x 25 x 200 mm³, impregnated using a Lowry or Rüping pressure treatment cycle with solutions of permethrin, cypermethrin or deltamethrin in BS144 creosote, have been exposed at marine sites in Australia, Papua New Guinea, the U.K. and Singapore. The effectiveness of these solutions in preventing marine borer attack is being compared with the efficacy of creosote alone, creosote/CCA double treatment, pyrethroids alone and no treatment. Blocks at the tropical sites have been installed in the intertidal zone in areas where the crustacean borer, Sphaeroma is active. Teredinids (shipworms) of several species are very numerous at these sites and the bivalve borer, Martesia, is present. Limnona colonies were found in untreated blocks at the sites in Papua New Guinea and Australia. The results of inspections after exposure periods of up to 26 months at the tropical sites are summarised in this report. Untreated sample blocks failed rapidly to borers, particularly teredinids. Pyrethroids alone reduced the level of crustacean borer attack and to a lesser extent, teredinid attack. All blocks treated with creosote-containing solutions have so far not been attacked by borers or degraded significantly by micro-organisms. Soft-rot and bacterial degradation occurred in untreated blocks and blocks treated with pyrethroids alone. Settlement by barnacles and serpulid worms appears to be inhibited by the creosote/CCA double treatment, but there is no evidence of long-term inhibition of barnacle or serpulid settlement by pyrethroid-containing solutions, whether with creosote or without. Samples at the site in the UK are exposed to teredinid attack. No inspections have yet been carried out at this site.
S M Cragg

Resistance of the wood of Eucalyptus saligna and Paulownia tomentosa against some wood rotting fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10238
Paulownia tomentosa and Eucalyptus saligna are not autochthonous species in Slovenia and we determined the resistance of their wood against our most common wood rotting fungi. The resistance against Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor was determined according to EN 113 and compared to the resistance of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. It was stated, that both paulownia and eucalypt wood samples are much more resistant than beech wood. Especially paulownia wood was outstanding by its natural resistance against tested basidiomycetes.
F Pohleven, M Petric

Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam

Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman

Update on lab and field test results for polymeric alkylphenol polysulfide treated wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40240
The possibility of using Polymeric Alkylphenol Polysulfide (PXTS) as a wood preservative has been undergoing evaluation in our laboratories for the past four years. Various formulations prepared from this compound have been tested and found to be effective against wood decay fungi and insects in field stakes after 42 months exposure. In accelerated soil bed tests, PXTS has been shown to be considerably more effective than creosote against both soft-rot and basidiomycete decay fungi. PXTS has also been shown to be effective against marine organisms and after 18 months exposure appears to have about the same efficacy as creosote. Preliminary treatment trials indicate that southern pine can be readily treated by the empty cell process
J Goswami, A Abramson, R Buff, D D Nicholas, T Schultz

Quantitative determination of Chromium: A comparison of three instruments
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50053
A comparison is made between three instruments for measuring levels of chromium in the leachate of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated timber. These include an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer and the RQflexâ. The RQflexâ is a new hand-held instrument which measures chromium by dipping a ReflectoquantÒ strip into the leachate and inserting the strip into the RQflexâ. Readings are determined reflectometrically following a reaction between chrome and the Reflectoquantâ strip. It provides an inexpensive and quick technique which is used in this paper to determine the degree of preservative fixation prior to the removal of CCA treated timber from drip pads of wood treatment sites. The results indicate that RQflexâ is a suitable instrument for the rapid assessment of chromium levels in rain wash off from treated timber. A comparison is given of the economics and accuracy of the instruments for measuring chromium.
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden

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