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Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study...
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith


Introduction of the COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20567
COST Action FP 1303 “Performance of bio-based building materials” successfully started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for the four year programme. COST Actions provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative research, e.g. in the frame of Round Robin tests. The idea of this respective test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as poss...
M Humar, C Brischke, L Meyer, B Lesar, N Thaler, D Jones, S Bardage, C Belloncle, J Van den Bulcke, J M Abascal, G Alfredsen, D Baisch, B Brunnhuber, G Cofta, E Grodås, E Frühwald Hansson, M Irle, H Kallakas, J Kers, M Klamer, P Larsson Brelid, A B Maider, K C Mahnert, E Melcher, R Möller, M Noël, L Nunes, G A Ormondroyd, S Palanti, N Pfabigan, A Pilgård, A O Rapp, P Schumacher, E Suttie, T Teppand, M Touza, J Van Acker


Comparative studies on the durability of English oak (Quercus robur L.) under in-service, field and laboratory conditions
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10881
The durability of many wood species varies due to differences in extractive content, anatomical features, growth conditions, and not at least in dependence of the respective exposure conditions either under test or in real life applications. And so does the durability of English oak (Quercus robur L.), which has recently been considered in the revised European standard EN 350 (2016) and is now cla...
C Brischke, L Meyer-Veltrup, A Soetbeer, M Höpken, E Melcher, J Trautner


COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test – Results after two years outdoor exposure
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20620
COST Action FP 1303 ‘Performance of Bio-Based Building Materials’ started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for four years. Among this a collaborative field test was planned. The idea of the cooperative performance test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as possible in order to collect performance data reflecting the full range of climat...
B Lesar, M Humar, C Brischke, L Meyer-Veltrup, D Jones, N Thaler, J M Abascal, G Alfredsen, B Brunnhuber, E Grodås, M Irle, J Kers, M Klamer, K-C Mahnert, E Melcher, S Palanti, M Noël, E Suttie, N Pfabigan, M Touza


Impact of sapwood portions on the durability of adjacent heartwood of Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Quercus robur. Part 1: Laboratory studies
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10922
Sapwood is generally considered as non-durable and assigned to durability class DC 5 according to European standards independent from the wood species. It is commonly agreed that sapwood decays faster than adjacent heartwood, but it is controversially discussed whether sapwood serves as feeder material and thus accelerates onset and progress of decay in more durable heartwood or decays independent...
C Brischke, P Homann, A Gellerich


Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of Eur...
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller


Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge


Laboratory fumigations to determine the minimum temperature for methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in red oak
1983 - IRG/WP 3243
Laboratory chamber fumigations of naturally-infected ret oak log sections exterminatet the oak wilt fungus in sapwood at temperatures down to 0°C. Only low, sporadic fungus survival was observed when log sections were gassed with methyl bromide at -5°C and aired for 4 da. at 0°C. Lower temperature treatments were not effective even if gas levels or exposure times were increased by 50%....
E L Schmidt


Analysis of degradation observed on ancient wooden objects buried underground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10403
Ancient wooden objects were sometimes excavated from the moat of mounded tombs in Japan. Such wooden objects were in the shape of a sunshade, bird, shield, pole, yugi(a bag that holds arrows) among others. Archaeologists discussed the usage of such shaped objects, but no one could clearly explain their use. Some objects were observed using an ordinary microscope. Deterioration by bacteria was foun...
H Sakai


Movement and persistence of chloropicrin, Vapam, Dazomet and methylisothiocyanate in red and white oak timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3728
This study describes the movement and persistence of four fumigants in sawn red and white oak timbers exposed out of ground contact for 2 years. Chloropicrin moved the furthest from the point of application, and was the most persistent. Vapam was next best, followed by Dazomet. Methylisothiocyanate (MIT), applied as pellets, was not effective, probably because MIT was lost from pellets prior to tr...
T L Highley


Effects of boron treatments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30106
This paper reports results of borate based preservative treatment and leaching experiments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood. Previous experiments have shown little damage is caused to sound timber of these types when treated with Polybor and Boracol 20 preservatives. This experiment was carried out to assess the suitability of selected borate based preservatives for use in histori...
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, P Durrant


Methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in logs. Laboratory and field fumigation
1981 - IRG/WP 3168
Concern over accidental introduction of the oak wilt fungus (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into oak-importing nations has prompted a study supported by the U.S. National Lumber Exporter's Assn. to assess the efficacy of methyl bromide fumigation to eradicate the fungus from logs and lumber. Laboratory and field fumigation trials to develop a reliable and realistic treatment were performed on r...
E L Schmidt, M M Ruetze, D W French


Reinfestation of consolidated ancient wood by insects
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10290
Wooden artifacts are often attacked by wood-destroying insects. Therefore conservators have to stabilize numerous objects from such attack. Initially we studied the resistance of painting materials and consolidants on unaffected recent wood against wood-destroying insects (IRG/WP 97-10239). Further, we wanted an answer to the question: Are artifacts, formerly destroyed by wood-borers, reinfested b...
W Unger, A Unger, U Schiessl


The WOODCARE project: Development of detection methods for Death watch beetle larvae and fungal decay
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20172
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English Heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and reliable detection of Death watch beetle larvae and related fungal decay in Oak. The problem with Death...
P Esser, P Van Staalduinen, A C Tas


Cellular and fractural failure after supercritical fluid impregnation of four wood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10503
Supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been investigated for delivering biocides into sawn wood. Pressure differentials during treatment may exceed the compressive or tensile strength perpendicular to grain, creating a potential for transverse deformations that exceed elastic strain limits. Wood treated by SCF processing with CO2, a potential biocide carrier, was inspected macroscopically and microscopi...
M E Anderson, R J Leichti, J J Morrell


On the resistance of consolidated ancient wood against Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen: Fr.) Schroeter
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10348
Structural timbers and other wood objects of cultural value in historical buildings and museums are often attacked by wood-destroying fungi. The aim of conservators is to preserve such damaged timbers and prevent further biodeterioration by impregnation with consolidants. There is little knowledge of the resistance of consolidated timber and art objects to a new attack by wood-destroying fungi. Br...
W Unger, A Unger, U Schiessl


Development of a disinfection treatment for oak logs to be imported from the USA
1984 - IRG/WP 3283
The European veneer industry depends greatly on oak supplies from the USA. To prevent the accidental introduction of the American Oak Wilt Disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into the member states of the EC, a disinfection treatment was developed for oak logs under consideration of the technical requirements of veneer production. Laboratory experiments and field trials in Germany and in the USA sho...
W Liese, M M Ruetze


Micromorphology of oak wood degraded by brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10356
To characterize the degradation of hardwood by brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana was incubated on the wood blocks of Quercus accutissima. For comparison, the same fungus was also incubated on the pine wood blocks of Pinus densiflora. In softwood, the shape of the wood cells and thickness of the cell appeared unchanged even the loss of birefringence in the affected areas. In contrast, oak wood d...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang-Ho Lee


Northern oak wood and its damages in Iran
1988 - IRG/WP 1377
The Northern oak species of Iran designated Quercus castaneaefolia C.A.M. is distributed widely in caspian littoral. In natural conditions (healthy) has favourable quality and it is used mostly in rural construtions, sleepers, parquets, cross arms for electric and communication poles, it is used also indoor and window construction, benches and finally veneer. This wood in the case of sleepers and ...
D Parsapajouh, P Niloufari


Influence of water soluble extractives on CCA fixation and leaching performance of red maple and red oak
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30133
We have observed several peculiarities in relation to CCA fixation in red maple and red oak woods such as high variability in fixation rates and leaching performance in maple and precipitate formation in solutions expressed from CCA treated red oak wood blocks at different stages of fixation. We have postulated that the extractives could be the factor of influence, as this has already been reporte...
T Stevanovic-Janezic, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Analysis of the boron content of preservative treated oak and pitch pine heartwood before and after leaching
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3697
Studies to determine the effects, if any, of a variety of boron formulations on heartwood of English oak and American Pitch pine have been previously reported (King et al (1991)). Small wood blocks were treated, at 10°C or 45°C, with borax, polybor or Boracol 20 for periods of 1 month or 4 months then analysed or continuously leached with tap water for a period of 1 month. Reported results showe...
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, B King


Preservation of basidiomycete hyphae in ancient waterlogged wood materials
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1536
Studies on waterlogged archaeological wood show that basidiomycete hyphae may persist as long as 800 years. In two pine wood samples with Phellinus pini heartrot, one from the foremast of the ship Vasa and the other from a bulwark constructed in the first part of the 12th century, numerous resin covered hyphae were observed. Hyphae with clamp connections that were associated with brown and white r...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


The effect of woody and non woody plants extractives on microbial resistance of non-durable species
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30392
The effect of Elm (Zelkova carpinifolia), Oak (Quercus castanifolia), Mulberry (Morus alba), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) as woody plants, Rose (Rosa damascene) and Fumitory (Fumaria sp) as non woody plants extractives on durability of Beech (Fagus orientalis), Maple (Acer insgin), Alder (Alnus subcordata), and Lime (Tilia sp) were studied. First wood species having extractives were cut to small piece...
S M Kazemi, A Hosinzadeh, M B Rezaii


Influence of ring width and wood density on durability of oak heartwood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10639
Oak (Quercus sp.) is considered as one of the most durable European wood species. The most important factor influencing oak durability was extractive content. In our work, we were interested in if oak-wood durability is affected by ring-width and related density. Therefore, oak heartwood specimens made of boards with different ring widths were exposed to five different fungal species Daedelea quer...
M Humar, P Oven, F Pohleven


Brief introduction of a research project on the wood materials from an ancient Byzantine port unearthed during drilling for underground rail tunnel in Istanbul
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10641
A research project has been recently started to evaluate some properties of wooden materials from the biggest port of ancient times called Port of Theodosius I in Istanbul, Turkey. The ruins of the ancient Byzantine port during the excavations were recently uncovered in the Yenikapi site where an underground rail tunnel construction has been in progress in Istanbul. The wooden objects unearthed fr...
A D Dogu, C Köse, S N Kartal, N Erdin


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