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Seasonal effects of the field evaluation on wood preservatives against mold fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20087
For the purpose of the amelioration of field test methods, commercial preservatives against mold fungi were tested under two different seasons, in winter and in summer. The specimens were bundled and set over the water bath and all these systems were covered with plastic film. At top of the system under film, black films for regeneration of sunlight were put in, and windows for changing air were reserved in summer. The visual evaluation of damage (rating 0-4) was done periodically. The results obtained as follows. 1.) The evaluation values after 2 months in winter were simmilar results as those after 3 weeks in summer. 2.) The fungicides, mixture of nitoril compound and organo nitrogen sulfuric compound, mixture of thiocyanate compound and organo nitrogen sulfuric compound, were obtained good results in field. Those percentage of the specimens rating under 1 were more than 50% and those mean rating were not more than 2. 3.) In the case of organo iodide compound, the results in winter were good but in summer were not so good.
K Suzuki, Y Sugai, K Ryugo, D Watanabe

The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented.
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter

Performance of Tuff Brite C™ and other formulations against blue-stain, mold and brown-stain in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the humid tropics of Peninsular Malaysia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30163
The relative anti-sapstain and anti-mold efficacies, including brown-stain development in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Malaysian tropics, between selected water-based product concentrations of formulations Tuff Brite CTM without/with added Borax (at 1.5/0, 1/1.5, 1.5/1.5 and 2%/1.5%), PQ8TM without/with added Borax (at 2.5/0, 1.5/1.5, 2/1.5 and 2.5%/1.5%) and NeXgenTM/NeX-BriteTM combination (at 1/0.25, 1.5/0.25 and 2%/0.25%) were assessed visually. Rubberwood boards, dipped in these concentrations for 1 min. were subjected to an 8 weeks sapstain trial in a FRIM sawmill shed. Sodium pentachlorophenate/Borax combination (at 2/1.5 and 2%/2%) was the reference anti-sapstain chemical. The rough-sawn boards were rated for blue-stain and mold weekly, while both the planed and the internal faces of the boards, sawn lengthwise into two-halves, were rated for blue-and brown-stain only after 8 weeks. Results for the rough-sawn boards, planed boards and the internal faces of the boards revealed a generally consistent excellent performance of Tuff Brite CTM without/with Borax against blue-stain and mold in rubberwood, protection being marginally better than that of NaPCP/Borax. Over a range of concentrations, performance by the remaining fomulations PQ8TM without/with Borax and NeXgenTM/NeX-BriteTM were variable: rated satisfactory (generally <10% surface infected) and/or poor (31-50% of surface infected) against sapstain and/or mold. Against brown-stain development (i.e. to conserve the natural cream/yellow hue in rubberwood), Tuff Brite CTM without/withBorax also appeared to be relatively better (generally yellow-to-light brown hue) than the other formulations, but perhaps only marginally so than NaPCP/Borax (light blue as well as yellow-to-light brown hue observed).
A H H Wong, T L Woods

Development process of a new anti-sapstain formulation and its present status with the relevant problems
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30257
An anti-sapstain formulation, which contains 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazol (TCMTB) and methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) as active ingredients, was developed by a technical agreement with Buckman Laboratories (Memphis, TN, USA) as an alternative to chlorinated phenols for the Japanese market. The formulation was commercialized as BAM 12 years ago. As anti-sapstain treatment is commonly conducted by momentary dipping at the Japanese sawmills and the treatment solution is repeatedly used, a high stability of the solution is required. Thus, a series of surfactants was screened to select the most suitable surfactant to meet the requirement. Laboratory evaluations showed that the newly developed product was effective against molds (Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus) and a sap-staining fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. When it was occasionally found ineffective against Gliocladium at lower treatment concentration, a chemical additive (IPBC or carbendazim) was shown to be helpful to fill up the deficiency of effectiveness. This was also demonstrated in the field trials. This report additionally refers to the problems that were experienced during and after commercialization of the anti-sapstain chemical formulation BAM.
K Nobashi, Y Nomura, K Tsunoda

A practical method to evaluate the dimensional stability of wood and wood products
1990 - IRG/WP 2342
This paper presents a new simple method to evaluate wood and wood products for their resistance to swelling and to assess wood preservatives for their ability to dimensionally stabilize treated wood exposed to water. Permeable wood of various dimensions and treated with different preserving chemicals have been measured for swelling in the radial and tangential direction during immersion in liquid water. The results indicate that a simple exponential function describing the dimension of the samples during immersion can be used to evaluate both the water-repellency and anti-swelling effectiveness of wood preserving chemicals. The results can be achieved in reasonable time, and the parameters of the function can be determined by a commercial desk-top computer program.
J P Hösli

Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. Inhibition of spore germination in plate bioassay by metabolites with boron was more effective than without added boron. Treatment of wood samples with the mixture of boron and unconcentrated metabolites also resulted in the synergistic effect and completely inhibited spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi.
S C Croan, T L Highley

Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers.
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto

In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre&apos;s programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis

Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale

Nouvelles techniques de lutte anti-termites à faible impact environnemental
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-32
P Martinet

Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid.
K Lutomski

Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos

Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with their tolerance to the antisapstain compound methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests showed no clear correlations. Isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to investigate the taxonomic relationships between species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from antisapstain field trials and to identify physiological differences between 30 isolates of Trichoderma which show tolerance to MBT at concentrations ranging from less than 4 ppm to 34 ppm. Results indicate that there is considerable variability in the preservative tolerance of different Trichoderma isolates from particular locality. This highlights the need for field testing of an antisapstain compound in the same locality and under the same conditions in which it will be used in practice.
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams

Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organisms. These results suggest that active biodetoxification of organic biocides could occur in a short period of time during storage of antisapstain treated timber under favourable conditions. The implications of these results are discussed.
G R Williams

Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the AWPEC. Present field test was carried out in 1992 and 1993. The results were evaluated after six months storage of test stacks. A TCMTB based product was used as a reference. The results show that the AFPRL method proves very suitable for the simulation of practical situation in Austrian treatment plants, where pine and/or spruce are treated periodically and where different methods of stack storage are applied.
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta

Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto

Working Group II: Sub-group: Methods of testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting sawn lumber during storage, transit
1978 - IRG/WP 2121
R Smith

Some thoughts on the future strategy for eradicating Serpula lacrymans from a building
1989 - IRG/WP 1405
We now have a clear view of the mechanism of translocation of nutrients in the mycelium of Serpula lacrymans which is one of the physiological processes underlying the remarkable capacity of this fungus to spread through a building. Here the elements of the mechanism of translocation are dissected out to suggest avenues which might be followed in the search for new ways for eradicating the fungus from buildings.
D H Jennings

Ecotoxicological risks of anti-sapstain preservatives washed off from treated timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50144
A field method for ecotoxicity assessment of rain water wash-off from anti-sapstain treated timber was developed. In the course of this study freshly sawn timber treated with 1.5% Busan 30 L (reference preservative) and a control stack with untreated pine were exposed to weathering. The run-off water was ecotoxicologically tested with organisms from three trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Kirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna). Results show, that the highest ecotoxicity can be detected immediately after treatment and within the first 4 weeks of storage - depending on the precipitation: high rainfall during the first month of exposure significantly increases ecotoxicity. Covering the treated stack provides sufficient protection of timber against leaching of chemicals and further on significantly minimises the environmental risk. Results suggest either storage of anti-sapstain treated timber in saw mills underneath a roof or, when stored outside, protection of treated stacks by coverage.
G Aschacher, R Gründlinger

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan

Mold inhibition on unseasoned southern pine
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10465
Concerns about indoor air quality due to mold growth have increased dramatically in the United States. In the absence of moisture management, fungicides need to be developed for indoor use to control mold establishment. An ideal fungicide for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials needs to specifically prevent spore germination and provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Fungicides intended for indoor use must exhibit no mammalian toxicity, be odorless and emit no VOCs. Classes of compounds meeting one or more of these criteria include acids, phenolic compounds (antioxidants), pharmaceuticals, commercial and experimental wood preservatives, food preservatives, and plant essential oils. Wood preservatives and food preservatives were initially screened at various concentrations for inhibitory properties to mold fungi on 2% malt agar (MA). Many compounds that inhibited the test fungi on MA failed to substantially inhibit mold growth on unseasoned southern pine at higher concentrations than the minimal inhibitory concentration determined on MA. Subsequently, compounds were screened on unseasoned southern pine stakes. Pine stakes were dipped for 15 seconds in varying concentrations of the test chemicals according to the ASTM standard test method D4445 for controlling mold on unseasoned lumber. Stakes were challenged with Penicillium chrysogenum PH02, Aspergillus niger 2.242, and Trichoderma viride ATCC 20476 spore preparations. Following a 4-wk incubation, stakes were rated from 0-5 with 5 representing heavy mold growth. An inihibition rating of 0 to 1 is indicative of successful mold inhibition. The best overall average ratings for wood preservatives were seen in stakes treated with 5% Bor-A-plus or Cu+, which were highly inhibitory to all test fungi. High concentrations of ethanolamine (10%) and thujaplicin (10%) were inhibitory to all test fungi. Pine resin (50%) solely inhibited P. chrysogenum. Of the food preservatives tested, five percent sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate inhibited all test fungi, while calcium propionate selectively inhibited A. niger. Pharmaceutical antifungals such as voriconazole (2.5mg/mL), thiabendazole (25mg/mL), and miconazole (20mg/mL) completely inhibited all test fungi on unseasoned pine, while other azole-derivatives failed to inhibit mold growth. Nystatin (10,000 units/mL) inhibited only A. niger. A combination of effective chemicals should be considered as one strategy to provide long-term protection of wood-based building materials from mold establishment.
C A Clausen, V W Yang

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